Japan Vs China Imperialism Essay

 

Several scholars have incriminated the traditional Chinese Confucian thinking as the maincause of the country’s failure in the 19

th

century. In this chapter I intend to present the determiningpatterns in the Chinese culture, politics and economics of the early 19

th

century. Lockwood (1956: 40)argues that China “alone among the Asian peoples brought to the modern world a tradition of egalitarianism, of personal freedom and social mobility,” free private property, and “humane politicalideals sanctioned by rebellion.” At the same time the Chinese state traditions had been veryenduring. In the previous two thousand years dynasties had rotated in a cyclical system, which wascharacterized by “decay, chaos, refurbishment of the system, and then decay again” (Levy, 1962:172). Fairbank and Reischauer (1989: 258) argue that by the time the Western powers appeared inthe early 19

th

century, the Ch’ing empire was in the downward phase of a dynastic cycle.Since they had experienced no formidable opponent, the Chinese viewed themselves as thecentre of Asian civilization. Hsü (1971: 155) states that the traditionalist worldview was expressed inthe emperor’s ‘filial piety’ towards his ancestors: “Filial piety demanded that he preserve theinstitutions set up by his forefathers, and that he place his duty to the family above all else” (Hsü,1971: 155). The examination system – through which the new members of the imperial bureaucracywere chosen – failed to broaden the horizon of the Chinese leaders. Although it was open toeverybody, it monopolized the education; entering the Chinese bureaucracy required hierarchicalloyalty.The history of the Ch’ing empire was by no means monolithic before the European powerspenetrated the region. The emergence of the new agricultural technology resulted in the“industrious revolution” (Akira, cited in Sugihara, 2006: 82), which enabled the Chinese population toincrease from the mid 18

th

to the mid 19

th

century from 143 million to 450 million (Harrison, 1967:30). Sugihara (2006: 82) assumes that the East Asian peoples managed to escape the Malthusianchecks and “successfully responded to (...) the scarcity of land, by developing a set of technologicaland institutional devices for full absorption of family labour.” By the mid-19

th

century however, thisagricultural development reached its boundaries. In absence of further technological developmentFairbank and Reischauer (1989: 263) assume that production was almost totally absorbed byconsumption.The Ch’ing statesmen relied on the traditional economy of agriculture, the resources of which were further drained by the tax-farming allowing the officials to tax the local population. Onlypart of the revenue reached Peking. Moreover, the tax-farmers colluded with the big landownersmaking the tax system ‘regressive’ where the poor paid more (Fairbank and Reischauer, 1989: 264-266).Whereas the model of sovereignty and system of nations developed gradually as the definingconcept of international relations in Europe, the East Asian interpretation of foreign politics was thetributary system. In this system the relations between the different nations were expanded accordingto the role of individuals in the Confucian family model with the Chinese Middle Kingdom in thecentre. The junior members of the model offered tribute to the head of the family, the ChineseEmpire (Hsü, 1971: 79).

1

All the other peoples with whom the Chinese interacted in the course of history wereregarded as barbarians: “they were but ‘uncivilized and outlandish’ peoples awaiting assimilationinto the Chinese orbit through a cultural transformation” (Hsü, 1971: 82). Thus, China only enteredinto negotiations with another party if they accepted the vassal status. This dogma was interlockedwith Chinese tenets of national security (Tsiang, 1971: 130). Wang (cited in Hsü, 1971: 154) alsostates that “no foreign resident ministers were ever received in the Chinese capital and no foreignministers were ever sent abroad.”

The isolated Japan

1

This family of nations consisted of several East Asian entities, among them Korea, Annam (Vietnam), Siam(Thailand), Burma, Japan, and the Ryukyu Islands

2

How Western Imperilism Affects China And Japan

Copyrights

I am handing over the copyrights to Jen Shriver upon doing so you accept this .

Thank you

Mike Sorrentino

Oct. 23, 1996

How Western Imperialism affects China and Japan

China and Japan had very different experiences with Western Imperialism . Their reactions to western interference would lay a foundation for their destiny in a world that was rapidly progressing forward , leaving the traditional world behind .

China viewed themselves as totally self sufficient , superior , and the only truly civilized land in a barbarous world. They were inward looking and were encouraged by the conservative Confucianistic beliefs of their emperors to cling to the ancient and traditional ways of the past . They slid rapidly behind in industrial development , refusing to acknowledge the need for shipbuilding or naval development , and saw no importance in European trade .

Then in the 1800's , Europe thrust its way into the heart of the Middle Kingdom, shattering and destroying its isolation forever. China would then be involved in four wars during the nineteenth century ; Britain's opium war (1839-1842), a second war (1856-1860) fought by British and French , the Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895) , and a final western invasion involving British , French , German , Japanese and U.S troops (1899-1900). Chinese Emperors were compelled to sign unequal treaties and were forced to open a number of ports , as well as agree to other territorial concessions . China was also forced to open its seacoasts and its rivers to Western intruders . The Europeans also exploited China's land by securing rights to build railways and develop its natural resources .

China had been unwilling to learn the ways of the West and so became the next victim to fall prey to Western Imperialism , Japan however, was more open to foreign influences , therefore its outcome to western imperialism was quite different. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries , Japan also...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Westernization in China and Japan Essay

1475 words - 6 pages In the middle of the 19th century, despite a few similarities between the initial responses of China and Japan to the West, they later diverged; which ultimately affected and influenced the modernizing development of both countries. At first, both of the Asian nations rejected the ideas which the West had brought upon them, and therefore went through a time period of self-imposed isolation. However, the demands that were soon set by Western...

Aging population in China, Japan and Korea

1286 words - 5 pages China, Japan and Korea have lots of similarities; such as they start economic development and growth within a short period of time, which is 1960s of Japan, Korea in1970s and China had economic reform since 1978. They have successfully controlled their population growth which population transition from high birth rate to low birth rates in a short period of time. Population aging is one of the social issues which they are facing. This essay will...

The Role of Women in Western Europe and Japan

1157 words - 5 pages Women in Western Europe and Japan had similar and different roles religiously, politically, and economically. Religiously, women in Western Europe and Japan had some religious roles and had female religious leaders. Women in Western Europe were better off religiously, partly due to the ability to become a nun and take part in religious services, while women in Japan could not. Over time, women in Japan lost most of their religious rights, and...

Economic and Political Strategies of China versus Japan

1069 words - 4 pages China and Japan From 1500 to 1800, China and Japan tried to politically and economically established their countries in very different ways. Japan fought war after war for a century before they changed their ways. China on the other hand slowly established a government and used education as a tool to be politically and economically strong. Japan would later do the same. China was one of the most politically and economically strong...

THE SENKAKU/DIAOYU ISLANDS TERRITORIAL DISPUTE BETWEEN JAPAN AND CHINA

9720 words - 39 pages UNISCI Discussion Papers, Nº 32 (Mayo / May 2013) ISSN 1696-2206 9 9 THE SENKAKU/DIAOYU ISLANDS TERRITORIAL DISPUTE BETWEEN JAPAN AND CHINA: BETWEEN THE MATERIALIZATION OF THE "CHINA THREAT" AND JAPAN "REVERSING THE OUTCOME OF WORLD WAR II"? Reinhard Drifte1 University of Newcastle Abstract: The territorial dispute between Japan and China over the sovereignty of the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands is framed...

China, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Global Economy

2460 words - 10 pages To properly consider the impact of integrating with the global economy on China, Japan, India and Southeast Asia, it is useful to first define the global economy. When did it come into being? Frank (1998) posits that a global economy had existed since the start of the thirteenth century. Although financial flows were limited, there was a burgeoning exchange of commodities between Asian and European economies. Of the Asian economies, China and...

The Triads of China and the Yakuza of Japan

1717 words - 7 pages Organized crime isn’t just a local problem, but a worldwide issue. Usually when we think of organized crime we recall such movies as “ The Godfather” and well known Mafioso’s such as Lucky Luciano and Al Capone, and overall the Italians. Before these people were even born or the movies thought of, there were already two powerful and dominate organized crime groups on the other side of the world. Recently they have come in the United...

Description of how the movie "The Last Samurai" portrays the effects of Western Imperialism on Japan

549 words - 2 pages This movie was set in Japan during the late 19th century. An American general who was famous for his many victorious battles against the Native Americans was called to Japan for a special task. The Japanese government was looking to make their civilization as western as possible. They adopted Western dress and began to shy away from the old...

Media Violence And How It Affects Us.

577 words - 2 pages A 10 to 12 year old boy is coming home from school. He steps off the bus and runs to the Television to watch his favorite action television show. No matter how many times his parents tell him not to watch the show he watches it any way. The whole theme in this show is a renegade taking out the bad guys by brutal measures. This kid after the show goes off and begins his homework and acts like any other human being. You might have thought that i...

Transportation and How it Affects Logistics

1346 words - 5 pages Transportation is one of the largest industries in the world. It is the most costly and time consuming of the supply chain. Transportation refers to the movement of products and raw materials from one destination to another. This process begins from the supply chain to the shipping of the finished product to the consumer. For we know that products are rarely produced in the same location. We as people depend on transportation because it moves...

Transportation and How it Affects Logistics

1719 words - 7 pages Transportation is one of the largest industries in the world. It is the most costly and time consuming of the supply chain. Transportation refers to the movement of products and raw materials from one destination to another. This process begins from the supply chain to the shipping of the finished product to the consumer. For we know that products are rarely produced in the same location. We as people depend on transportation because it moves...

0 Replies to “Japan Vs China Imperialism Essay”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *