Essay Wikipedia Indonesia Air

Not to be confused with Lionair or Lionair (Luxembourg).

PT Lion Mentari Airlines, operating as Lion Air, is an Indonesianlow-cost airline. Based in Jakarta, Indonesia, Lion Air is the country's largest privately run airline, the second largest low-cost airline in Southeast Asia after AirAsia and the second largest airline of Indonesia, flying to more than 79 destinations in Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia,[2] as well as charter routes to China, Hong Kong and Macau.[3]

Established in 1999, Lion Air has seen tremendous growth in the past several years, having acquired over 100 aircraft with nearly 500 more on order.[citation needed] The airline has repeatedly broken records for largest aircraft orders, such as its $24 billion order for 234 Airbus A320 jets, as well as its $22.4 billion order for 230 competing aircraft from Boeing.[2] The airline signed agreement with US-based aircraft manufacturer Boeing for 50 737 Max 10 passenger jets worth $6.24 billion in June, 2017. The airline is the 2nd largest customer of Boeing.[4] It had once been criticized for poor operational management in areas such as scheduling and safety, although steps have been taken to improve its safety: on June 16, 2016, the European Union lifted the ban it had placed on Lion Air from flying into European airspace.[5]

Lion Air operates over 100 Boeing 737-800/900ER aircraft. The airline has been characterised by its rapid expansion and the success of its low-cost business model. The airline holds minority shareholdings in associate companies based in Thailand (Thai Lion Air) and Malaysia (Malindo Air).[citation needed]

History[edit]

The airline was established in October 1999 by brothers Rusdi and Kusnan Kirana and started operations on 30 June 2000, when it began scheduled passenger services between Jakarta and Denpasar using a leased Boeing 737-200. It was the first low cost airline in Indonesia. The fleet was quickly expanded with the wet-lease of 5 Yakovlev Yak-42Ds, 2 McDonnell Douglas MD-82s and 2 sub-leased Airbus A310-300s. Rapid growth enabled modernisation of the fleet with Boeing 737-300 and Boeing 737-400 aircraft. In 2003 a subsidiary airline was established, Wings Air, operating flights on lower density routes. Further subsidiaries were developed including Malindo Air in Malaysia in 2012, Thai Lion Air in Thailand in 2013 and domestically, Batik Air, a full-service subsidiary, also in 2013.[6]

The airline is planning to join IATA and therefore hoping to become the second IATA Indonesian member carrier after Garuda Indonesia. Lion Air failed, in early 2011, the initial IATA assessments for membership due to safety concerns. Lion Air and Boeing are pioneering the use of required navigation performance (RNP) procedures in Indonesia, having successfully performed validation flights at the two terrain-challenged airports of Ambon and Manado.[7]

From 19 July 2011, Lion Air has grounded 13 planes due to sanction caused by bad on-time performance (OTP). The transportation ministry recorded that Lion Air's OTP of 66.45 percent was the worst of six airlines in an assessment conducted from January to April 2011 at 24 airports nationwide.[8][9] On the other hand, airlines using Jakarta airport face considerable delays to their schedules due to runway congestion.[10]

On 18 November 2011, the airline jointly announced with Boeing a record-setting order of 201 Boeing 737 MAX and 29 Boeing 737-900ER planes, setting the record for the world's biggest single order of 230 planes for a commercial airline worth $21.7 billion.[11]

In January 2012, the Transportation Ministry said that it sanctioned Lion Air because some of its pilots and crew members were found in recent months to be in possession of crystal methamphetamine. In late 2011 Muhammad Nasri and two other co-pilots were arrested at a party in Tangerang; in early 2012 a pilot was caught with crystal meth in Makassar.[12] On 4 February 2012, another Lion Air pilot was arrested following a positive urinalysis test for use of methamphetamine; he was scheduled to fly the Surabaya—Makassar—Balikpapan—Surabaya flight hours later.[13] The licenses of the pilots and crew were revoked.

In June 2016 Lion Air was removed from the list of blacklisted airlines to fly into the EU.[14]

Destinations[edit]

Main article: Lion Air destinations

Official Lion Air Route Map

As of January 2014[update], Lion Air serves a total of 120 destinations: 100 domestic and 20 international.

Fleet[edit]

The Boeing customer code for Lion Air is GP, which appears in their aircraft designation as a suffix, such as 737-8GP and 737-9GPER.

Current fleet[edit]

As of October 2017,[update] the Lion Air fleet consists of the following aircraft:[15]

Special Liveries[edit]

Orders[edit]

Lion Air was the launch customer for the largest variant of the Boeing 737, the 737-900ER, for which it placed an order in 2005. On 26 May 2005, Lion Air signed a preliminary agreement with Boeing for the purchase of up to 60 Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft, valued at $3.9 billion at list prices. Lion Air confirmed their order in July 2005 and became the launch customer for the Boeing 737-900ER with firm orders for 30 aircraft and options for 30 more, which were later converted into firm orders. The -900ER can carry up to 215 passengers in a single-class layout, and is powered by CFM56-7B turbofan engines. On 27 April 2007, Boeing delivered the first 737-900ER to Lion Air. The aircraft was delivered in a special dual-paint scheme that combines Lion Air's logo on its vertical stabilizer and the Boeing "Dreamliner" livery on the fuselage.

Lion Air set a world record when it placed an order for 230 aircraft from Boeing, making this the largest order in terms of aircraft ordered as well the cost of the order. In November 2011, Lion Air and Boeing announced that the airline planned to buy 29 additional Boeing 737 Next Generation and 201 Boeing 737 MAX aircraft, with options for 150 more, valued at $21.7 billion at the time.[11] A firm order was signed on 14 February 2012, with the 737 MAX aircraft identified as 737 MAX 9s, making Lion Air the launch customer for that variant.[17] By the time of the signing, the order's value had risen to $22.4 billion at list prices, the largest aircraft order in history.[17] Additionally, the engines for the -900ERs, CFM 56-7s, cost about $580 million and the engines for the MAXs, CFM LEAP-1Bs, cost about $4.8 billion.[17] Deliveries of the additional NGs are to start in 2014, with the MAXs to follow in 2017.[17]

On Monday 18 March 2013 Lion Air placed an order for 234 A320 jets with Airbus, the largest single order ever made surpassing previous record by Boeing ($22.4 Billion). The contract, which was signed at the Elysée Palace in the presence of President François Hollande and several government ministers, is worth €18.4 billion ($24 billion) at catalogue prices, the French presidency said.[18]

Former fleet[edit]

EU aviation blacklist[edit]

Main article: List of air carriers banned in the European Union

Lion Air, along with Wings Air and Batik Air, was one of several Indonesian carriers banned from operating in European airspace, because of the European Commission's concerns about the Indonesian Directorate General of Civil Aviation's (DGCA) ability to provide proper regulatory oversight of the country's airline industry. Lion Air was removed from the EU's blacklist on June 16, 2016 and now is allowed to fly to any EU country.[20]

Market share[edit]

In 2000s, Lion Air began to grow and become a serious rival for Garuda Indonesia in domestic air travel in Indonesia. By mid 2015, Lion Air rules Indonesia's domestic air travel market share by 41.6 percent, while Garuda Indonesia came in second with 23.5 percent share. Sriwijaya Air came in third with a market share of 10.4 percent, followed by Garuda's low-cost subsidiary Citilink (8.9 percent) and Lion Air's regional flight service Wings Air (4.7 percent). Indonesia AirAsia, a unit of the Malaysian budget airline, had a 4.4 percent market share.[21]

Overall, Indonesian domestic air travel business is overwhelmingly ruled by two groups; Lion Air group and Garuda Indonesia group. By mid 2015, Lion Air group accounted for 43.17 percent of market share, while Garuda Indonesia group had a 37.08 percent market share.[22]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • On 14 January 2002, Lion Air Flight 386, a Boeing 737-200 crashed on take-off and was written off at Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport. Everyone on board survived.
  • On 30 November 2004, Lion Air Flight 538, a McDonnell Douglas MD-82, crashed in Surakarta with registration PK-LMN (c/n 49189); 25 people died.[23]
  • On 4 March 2006, Lion Air Flight 8987, a McDonnell Douglas MD-82, crashed after landing at Juanda International Airport.[24] Reverse thrust was used during landing, although the left thrust reverser was stated to be out of service.[24] This caused the aircraft to veer to the right and skid off the runway, coming to rest about 7,000 feet (2,100 m) from the approach end of the runway.[24] There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was badly damaged.[24]
  • On 24 December 2006, Lion Air Flight 792, a Boeing 737-400, landed with an incorrect flap configuration and was not aligned with the runway.[25] The plane landed hard and skidded along the runway causing the right main landing gear to detach, the left gear to protrude through the wing and some of the aircraft fuselage to be wrinkled.[25] There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was written off.[25]
  • On 23 February 2009, Lion Air Flight 972, a McDonnell Douglas MD-82 landed without the nose gear at Hang Nadim International Airport, Batam.
  • On 9 March 2009, Lion Air Flight 793, a McDonnell Douglas MD-90-30 (registration PK-LIL) ran off the runway at Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. No-one was injured.[26]
  • On 2 November 2010, Lion Air Flight 712, a Boeing 737-400 (registration PK-LIQ) overran the runway on landing at Supadio Airport, Pontianak, coming to rest on its belly and sustaining damage to its nose gear. All 174 passengers and crew evacuated by the emergency slides, with few injuries.[27]
  • On 13 April 2013, Lion Air Flight 904, a Boeing 737-800 (registration PK-LKS; c/n 38728) from Bandung to Denpasar with 108 people on board, crashed into the water near Denpasar/Bali while attempting to land. The aircraft’s fuselage broke into two parts.[28] While Indonesian officials reported the aircraft crashed short of the runway,[28] reporters and photographers from Reuters and the Associated Press indicated that the plane overshot the runway.[29][30] All passengers and crew were evacuated from the aircraft and there were no fatalities.[28]
  • On 6 August 2013, Lion Air Flight 892, a Boeing 737-800 (registration PK-LKH; c/n 37297) from Makassar to Gorontalo with 117 passengers and crew on board, hit a cow while landing at Jalaluddin Airport and veered off the runway. There were no injuries.[31]
  • On 1 February 2014, Lion Air Flight 361, a Boeing 737-900ER (registration PK-LFH; c/n 35710), from BalikpapanSultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport to Ngurah Rai International Airport in Denpasar/Bali via Juanda International Airport in Surabaya, with 222 passengers and crew on board, landed hard and bounced four times on the runway, causing a tail strike and substantial damage to the plane. There were no fatalaties, but two passengers were seriously injured and three others had minor injuries.[32]
  • On 20 February 2016, Lion Air flight 263 from Balikpapan Sultan Aji Muhammad Sulaiman Airport to Juanda International Airport in Surabaya overran the runway on landing, with no injuries.[33] The National Transportation Safety Committee investigation into the incident found that failures in crew resource management led to improper landing procedures, and recommended that Indonesian airlines improve pilot training.[34]
  • On 2 April 2017, about 300 litres [35] of fuel spilled on the tarmac at Juanda International Airport in Surabaya. Pictures taken by passengers on board showed fuel pouring out of one of the aircraft's wings.[36] Shortly after, all passengers were evacuated and the plane was grounded for further investigation. No casualties were reported. That same day a representative from Lion Air was summoned by the Indonesian Transport Ministry to clarify the incident. An early statement by a Lion Air representative said that the leak was caused by a non-functioning safety valve and overflow detector.[37]

Revocation of routes[edit]

On January 9, 2015, following the fatal crash of Indonesia AirAsia Flight 8501, 53 routes operated by Lion Air and its subsidiaries were revoked by the transportation ministry as they had not been approved to fly. Among the 61 routes, Lion Air had the largest share.[38]

Private jet business[edit]

In early 2012, the Transportation Ministry said that the airline was processing an Air Operator Certificate (AOC) for their private business jets. Private-jet services will be launched in the third quarter of 2012 with 4 of nine-seater jets Hawker 900 XP. The aim is to serve clients from the country's mining industry and will compete with Susi Air and Royal Jet.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^2013 Laureate Award Nominees, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 January 2013, p. 47
  2. ^ ab"Airbus-Boeing battle shifts to Indonesia | Inquirer Business". Business.inquirer.net. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  3. ^"Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 3 April 2007. p. 106. 
  4. ^"Lion Air Places $6.2b Order for 50 Cutting Edge Boeing Passenger Jets". The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2017-06-21. 
  5. ^"EU Lifts IranAir, Indonesia's Lion Air from Safety Blacklist". BeritaSatu. 2016-06-16. Retrieved 2016-06-17. 
  6. ^"The Lion Roars". Airliner World: 88–96. February 2015. 
  7. ^"Boeing, Lion Air pioneer precision satellite navigation technology". Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  8. ^Lion Air Should Grounded 13 Planes
  9. ^"Lion, Batavia pledge to improve performance". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 
  10. ^Citrinot, Luc (18 November 2010). "JAKARTA AIRPORT CONGESTION Some solutions to decongest Jakarta Soekarno Hatta Airport?". Eturbonews.com. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  11. ^ ab"Boeing sets record with $22 billion order". CNN Money. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  12. ^"Lion air sanctioned over pilots with crystal meth". 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. 
  13. ^"Lagi, Pilot Lion Air Nyabu Ditangkap BNN". 4 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. 
  14. ^"Aviation Safety: Commission updates EU air safety list – Iran and Africa make progress". European Commission - Mobility and Transport. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  15. ^"Lion Air Fleet Details and History". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved 2017-10-15. 
  16. ^"Lion Air Group Order 50 Units Boeing 737 MAX 10". www.lionair.co.id. Retrieved 2017-12-28. 
  17. ^ abcd"Lion Air Firms Up Boeing Order". Aviation International News. 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012. 
  18. ^"Disaksikan Presiden Prancis, Lion Air Pesan 234 Pesawat Airbus A320". 18 March 2013. 
  19. ^"Airfleets.net". Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  20. ^Ballantyne, Tom (13 June 2008). "Orient Aviation". Orient Aviation magazine. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013. 
  21. ^ ab"Lion Loses Market Share as Air Travel Growth Slows". Jakarta Globe. 
  22. ^Safyra Primadhyta & Gentur Putro Jati (2015-06-04). "Garuda Indonesia Gerus Pangsa Pasar Penumpang Domestik Lion". CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). 
  23. ^"Accident: Fatal Accident in 2004". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  24. ^ abcd"Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  25. ^ abc"Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  26. ^"Lion Air Flight JT 793". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  27. ^Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Lionair B734 at Pontianak on Nov 2nd 2010, overran runway on landing". Aviation Herald. Retrieved 2 November 2010. 
  28. ^ abcHradecky, Simon (14 April 2013). "Accident: Lionar B738 at Denpasar on Apr 13th 2013, came to stop in sea". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  29. ^"All passengers safe as Lion Air plane overshoots runway in Bali". Daily News and Analysis. 13 April 2013. 
  30. ^"Investigators seek cause of new Boeing 737's crash into sea". KOMOnews.com. 14 April 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. 
  31. ^"Passenger jet skids off a runway after crashing into a cow when it was landing at airport in Indonesia". Daily Mail. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2016. 
  32. ^"Lion Air Flight JT 361". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  33. ^"Surabaya Airport Temporarily Closed After LionAir Plane Skids Off". Tempo.co. 21 February 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  34. ^"Poor crew co-ordination, bad approach caused Lion 737 excursion". Flightglobal. 6 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  35. ^http://news.okezone.com/read/2017/04/02/337/1656895/pertamina-avtur-yang-luber-dari-sayap-pesawat-lion-air-di-bandara-juanda-capai-300-liter
  36. ^http://www.cnnindonesia.com/tv/20170402192451-407-204409/bahan-bakar-pesawat-lion-air-bocor/
  37. ^http://news.okezone.com/read/2017/04/02/337/1656853/katup-pengaman-tidak-berfungsi-jadi-penyebab-bocornya-bahan-bakar-lion-air
  38. ^Heribertus Sulis Setyanto (January 9, 2015). "Lima Maskapai Langgar Izin Terbang, Lion Air Terbanyak". 
  39. ^"Lion Air set to buy Hawker jets for private services". 10 February 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lion Air.
  • (in Indonesian)(in English)(in Chinese)(in Arabic)(in Vietnamese)Official website
Lion Air was the launch customer of the 737-900ER, seen here on the type's first flight
Lion Air Boeing 737-900ER (registration PK-LPF)

An air purifier or air cleaner is a device which removes contaminants from the air in a room. These devices are commonly marketed as being beneficial to allergy sufferers and asthmatics, and at reducing or eliminating second-hand tobacco smoke. The commercially graded air purifiers are manufactured as either small stand-alone units or larger units that can be affixed to an air handler unit (AHU) or to an HVAC unit found in the medical, industrial, and commercial industries. Air purifiers may also be used in industry to remove impurities such as CO2 from air before processing. Pressure swing adsorbers or other adsorption techniques are typically used for this.

History[edit]

In 1830, a patent was awarded to Charles Anthony Deane for a device comprising a copper helmet with an attached flexible collar and garment. A long leather hose attached to the rear of the helmet was to be used to supply air, the original concept being that it would be pumped using a double bellows. A short pipe allowed breathed air to escape. The garment was to be constructed from leather or airtight cloth, secured by straps.[1]

In the 1860s, John Stenhouse filed two patents applying the absorbent properties of wood charcoal to air purification (patents 19 July 1860 and 21 May 1867), thereby creating the first practical respirator.[2]

A few years later, John Tyndall invented an improvement to the fireman's respirator, a hood that filtered smoke and noxious gas from air (1871, 1874).[3]

In the 1950s, HEPA filters were commercialized as highly efficient air filters, after being put to use in the 1940s in the United States' Manhattan Project to control airborne radioactive contaminants.[4][5]

Use and benefits of purifiers[edit]

Dust, pollen, pet dander, moldspores, and dust mitefeces can act as allergens, triggering allergies in sensitive people. Smoke particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can pose a risk to health. Exposure to various components such as VOCs increases the likelihood of experiencing symptoms of sick building syndrome.[6] Air purifiers are becoming increasingly capable of eliminating a greater number of bacterial, virus, and DNA damaging particulates through the use of ultra violet lighting technology.

Purifying techniques[edit]

There are two types of air purifying technologies, Active and Passive. Active air purifier use ionisation for cleaning the air. Passive air purification units on the other hand use air filters to remove pollutants. They are more efficient since all dust and Particulate Matter is permanently removed from the air and collected in the filters.[7]

Several different processes of varying effectiveness can be used to purify air.

  • Thermodynamic sterilization (TSS) - This technology uses heat sterilization via a ceramic core with micro capillaries, which are heated to 200 °C (392 °F). It is claimed that 99.9% of microbiological particles - bacteria, viruses, dust mite allergens, mold and fungus spores - are incinerated.[8] The air passes through the ceramic core by the natural process of air convection, and is then cooled using heat transfer plates and released. TSS is not a filtering technology, as it does not trap or remove particles.[9] TSS is claimed not to emit harmful by-products (although the byproducts of partial thermal decomposition are not addressed) and also reduces the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere.[10]
  • Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation - UVGI can be used to sterilize air that passes UV lamps via forced air. Air purification UVGI systems can be freestanding units with shielded UV lamps that use a fan to force air past the UV light. Other systems are installed in forced air systems so that the circulation for the premises moves micro-organisms past the lamps. Key to this form of sterilization is placement of the UV lamps and a good filtration system to remove the dead micro-organisms. For example, forced air systems by design impede line-of-sight, thus creating areas of the environment that will be shaded from the UV light. However, a UV lamp placed at the coils and drainpan of cooling system will keep micro-organisms from forming in these naturally damp places. The most effective method for treating the air rather than the coils is in-line duct systems, these systems are placed in the center of the duct and parallel to the air flow.
  • Filter - based purification traps airborne particles by size exclusion. Air is forced through a filter and particles are physically captured by the filter.
High-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters remove at least 99.97% of 0.3-micrometer particles and are usually more effective at removing larger particles. HEPA purifiers, which filter all the air going into a clean room, must be arranged so that no air bypasses the HEPA filter. In dusty environments, a HEPA filter may follow an easily cleaned conventional filter (prefilter) which removes coarser impurities so that the HEPA filter needs cleaning or replacing less frequently. HEPA filters do not generate ozone or harmful byproducts in course of operation.
Filter HVAC at MERV 14 or above are rated to remove airborne particles of 0.3 micrometers or larger. A high efficiency MERV 14 filter has a capture rate of at least 75% for particles between 0.3 to 1.0 micrometers. Although the capture rate of a MERV filter is lower than that of a HEPA filter, a central air system can move significantly more air in the same period of time. Using a high-grade MERV filter can be more effective than using a high-powered HEPA machine at a fraction of the initial capital expenditure. Unfortunately, most furnace filters are slid in place without an airtight seal, which allows air to pass around the filters. This problem is worse for the higher-efficiency MERV filters because of the increase in air resistance. Higher-efficiency MERV filters are usually denser and increase air resistance in the central system, requiring a greater air pressure drop and consequently increasing energy costs.
  • Activated carbon is a porous material that can adsorb volatile chemicals on a molecular basis, but does not remove larger particles. The adsorption process when using activated carbon must reach equilibrium thus it may be difficult to completely remove contaminants.[11] Activated carbon is merely a process of changing contaminants from a gaseous phase to a solid phase, when aggravated or disturbed contaminants can be regenerated in indoor air sources.[12] Activated carbon can be used at room temperature and has a long history of commercial use. It is normally used in conjunction with other filter technology, especially with HEPA. Other materials can also absorb chemicals, but at higher cost.
  • Polarized-media electronic air cleaners use active electronically enhanced media to combine elements of both electronic air cleaners and passive mechanical filters. Most polarized-media electronic air cleaners convert 24-volt current to safe DC voltage to establish the polarized electric field. Airborne particles become polarized as they pass through the electric field and adhere to a disposable fiber media pad. Ultra-fine particles (UFPs) that are not collected on their initial pass through the media pad are polarized and agglomerate to other particles, odor and VOC molecules and are collected on subsequent passes. The efficiency of polarized-media electronic air cleaners increases as they load, providing high-efficiency filtration, with air resistance typically equal to or less than passive filters. Polarized-media technology is non-ionizing, which means no ozone is produced.
  • Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an emerging technology in the HVAC industry.[13] In addition to the prospect of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) benefits, it has the added potential for limiting the introduction of unconditioned air to the building space, thereby presenting an opportunity to achieve energy savings over previous prescriptive designs. As of May 2009[14][15] there was no more disputable concern raised by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory data that PCO may significantly increase the amount of formaldehyde in real indoor environments.[16] As with other advanced technologies, sound engineering principles and practices should be employed by the HVAC designer to ensure proper application of the technology. Photocatalytic oxidation systems are able to completely oxidize and degrade organic contaminants. For example, Volatile Organic Compounds found low concentrations within a few hundred ppmv or less are the most likely to be completely oxidized.[11](PCO) uses short-wave ultraviolet light (UVC), commonly used for sterilization, to energize the catalyst (usually titanium dioxide (TiO2)[17]) and oxidize bacteria and viruses.[18] PCO in-duct units can be mounted to an existing forced-air HVAC system. PCO is not a filtering technology, as it does not trap or remove particles. It is sometimes coupled with other filtering technologies for air purification. UV sterilization bulbs must be replaced about once a year; manufacturers may require periodic replacement as a condition of warranty. Photocatalytic Oxidation systems often have high commercial costs.[11]
A related technology relevant to air purification is photoelectrochemical oxidation (PECO) Photoelectrochemical oxidation. While technically a type of PCO, PECO involves electrochemical interactions among the catalyst material and reactive species (e.g., through emplacement of cathodic materials) to improve quantum efficiency; in this way, it is possible to use lower energy UVA radiation as the light source and yet achieve improved effectiveness.[19]
  • Ionizer purifiers use charged electrical surfaces or needles to generate electrically charged air or gas ions. These ions attach to airborne particles which are then electrostatically attracted to a charged collector plate. This mechanism produces trace amounts of ozone and other oxidants as by-products.[6] Most ionizers produce less than 0.05 ppm of ozone, an industrial safety standard. There are two major subdivisions: the fanless ionizer and fan-based ionizer. Fanless ionizers are noiseless and use little power, but are less efficient at air purification. Fan-based ionizers clean and distribute air much faster. Permanently mounted home and industrial ionizer purifiers are called electrostatic precipitators.
  • Immobilized cell technology removes microfine particulate matter from the air by attracting charged particulates to a bio-reactive mass, or bioreactor, which enzymatically renders them inert.
  • Ozone generators are designed to produce ozone, and are sometimes sold as whole house air cleaners. Unlike ionizers, ozone generators are intended to produce significant amounts of ozone, a strong oxidant gas which can oxidize many other chemicals. The only safe use of ozone generators is in unoccupied rooms, utilising "shock treatment" commercial ozone generators that produce over 3000 mg of ozone per hour. Restoration contractors use these types of ozone generators to remove smoke odors after fire damage, musty smells after flooding, mold (including toxic molds), and the stench caused by decaying flesh which cannot be removed by bleach or anything else except for ozone. However, it is not healthy to breathe ozone gas, and one should use extreme caution when buying a room air purifier that also produces ozone.[20]
  • Titanium dioxide (TiO2) technology - nanoparticles of TiO2, together with calcium carbonate to neutralize any acidic gasses that may be adsorbed, is mixed into slightly porous paint. Photocatalysis initiates the decomposition of airborne contaminants at the surface.[21]

Consumer concerns[edit]

Other aspects of air cleaners are hazardous gaseous by-products, noise level, frequency of filter replacement, electrical consumption, and visual appeal. Ozone production is typical for air ionizing purifiers. Although high concentration of ozone is dangerous, most air ionizers produce low amounts (< 0.05 ppm). The noise level of a purifier can be obtained through a customer service department and is usually reported in decibels (dB). The noise levels for most purifiers are low compared to many other home appliances.[citation needed] Frequency of filter replacement and electrical consumption are the major operation costs for any purifier. There are many types of filters; some can be cleaned by water, by hand or by vacuum cleaner, while others need to be replaced every few months or years. In the United States, some purifiers are certified as Energy Star and are energy efficient.

HEPA technology is used in portable air purifiers as it removes common airborne allergens. The US Department of Energy has requirements manufacturers must pass to meet HEPA requirements. The HEPA specification requires removal of at least 99.97% of 0.3 micrometers airborne pollutants. Products that claim to be "HEPA-type", "HEPA-like", or "99% HEPA" do not satisfy these requirements and may not have been tested in independent laboratories.

Air purifiers may be rated on a variety of factors, including Clean Air Delivery Rate (which determines how well air has been purified); efficient area coverage; air changes per hour; energy usage; and the cost of the replacement filters. Two other important factors to consider are the length that the filters are expected to last (measured in months or years) and the noise produced (measured in decibels) by the various settings that the purifier runs on. This information is available from most manufacturers.

Potential ozone hazards[edit]

As with other health-related appliances, there is controversy surrounding the claims of certain companies, especially involving ionic air purifiers. Many air purifiers generate some ozone, an energetic allotrope of three oxygen atoms, and in the presence of humidity, small amounts of NOx. Because of the nature of the ionization process, ionic air purifiers tend to generate the most ozone.[citation needed] This is a serious concern, because ozone is a criteria air pollutant regulated by health-related US federal and state standards. In a controlled experiment, in many cases, ozone concentrations were well in excess of public and/or industrial safety levels established by US Environmental Protection Agency, particularly in poorly ventilated rooms.[22]

Ozone can damage the lungs, causing chest pain, coughing, shortness of breath and throat irritation. It can also worsen chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and compromise the ability of the body to fight respiratory infections—even in healthy people. People who have asthma and allergy are most prone to the adverse effects of high levels of ozone.[23] For example, increasing ozone concentrations to unsafe levels can increase the risk of asthma attacks.

Due to the below average performance and potential health risks, Consumer Reports has advised against using ozone producing air purifiers.[24]IQAir, the educational partner of the American Lung Association, has been a leading industry voice against ozone-producing air cleaning technology.[25]

Ozone generators used for shock treatments (unoccupied rooms) which are needed by smoke, mold, and odor remediation contractors as well as crime scene cleanup companies to oxidize and permanently remove smoke, mold, and odor damage are considered a valuable and effective tool when used correctly for commercial and industrial purposes. However, there is a growing body of evidence that these machines can produce undesirable by-products.[26]

In September 2007, the California Air Resources Board announced a ban of indoor air cleaning devices which produce ozone above a legal limit. This law, which took effect in 2010, requires testing and certification of all types of indoor air cleaning devices to verify that they do not emit excessive ozone.[27][28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Newton, William; Partington, Charles Frederick (1825). Charles Anthony Deane - 1823 patent. Newton's London Journal of Arts and Sciences. 9. W. Newton. p. 341. 
  2. ^Stenhouse, John. Dictionary of National Biography. 54. 1885–1900. 
  3. ^Ian Taggart History of air-purifying type gas-masks in the 19th-centuryArchived 2013-05-02 at the Wayback Machine.. John Tyndall (1871), Fireman's Respirator, and John Tyndall (1874). "On Some Recent Experiments with a Fireman's Respirator". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 22 (148–155): 359–361. doi:10.1098/rspl.1873.0060. JSTOR 112853. 
  4. ^Ogunseitan, Oladele (2011-05-03). Green Health: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE. p. 13. ISBN 9781412996884. 
  5. ^Gantz, Carroll (2012-09-21). The Vacuum Cleaner: A History. McFarland. p. 128. ISBN 9780786493210. 
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External links[edit]

A Sharp FU-888SV Plasmacluster air purifier.

The same air purifier, cover removed.

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