The Great Fear (in French, Grande Peur) was a wave of peasant riots and violence that swept through France in July and August 1789. These riots were caused by economic concerns, rural panic and the power of rumour. Already excited by the summer’s political developments, France’s peasants began to hear rumours about roving bands of hired brigands, who were reportedly rampaging through the countryside, raiding villages and stealing grain. These rumours appeared in different places, took different forms and invoked different levels of response. Many peasants responded by arming themselves and mobilising to defend their property. Some went further and engaged in revolutionary violence, taking to the road, looting the châteaux of landed aristocrats and destroying feudal contracts. The peasants, it seems, became the destructive brigands they had initially feared. While few people were killed during the Great Fear, millions of livres of private and feudal property was either stolen or destroyed.
The story of the Great Fear begins with paranoia about outsiders. French peasants were accustomed to outsiders arriving in their region, usually in the middle of the year when good weather made travel easier. Some of these outsiders were landless labourers or destitute townspeople in search of paid work. Others were beggars, vagrants and outcasts, who decided that living off the land or seeking the charity of farmers was better than starving in the cities. Peasant communities were, by their nature, insular and suspicious of outsiders. They considered these strangers with a suspicious eye. New arrivals competed for labour, food and charity provided by the local parish. The situation was particularly critical in the spring of 1789, as France endured its worst food crisis in years. Even the small stores of grain retained by peasants for their own survival were dwindling. According to John Albert White, who translated Georges Lefebvre’s pivotal study of the Great Fear, the numbers of itinerants in rural areas reached levels never seen before:
“Unemployed workers, displaced by the crisis in industry, were everywhere in search of jobs… Vagrants and beggars, always a source of concern to the small rural proprietor, choked the roads and threatened reprisals against householders who refused to give them shelter or a crust of bread. Hungry men and women invaded forests and fields and stripped them of firewood or grain, before the harvest was ripe to the gathered.”
Peasant communities were also unsettled by the political events of 1788-89. The convocation of the Estates General and the drafting of the cahiers created a mood of optimism and expectation across the country. The process of writing the cahiers was politically stimulating because it brought peasants together to discuss their situation and share their grievances, particularly the burdens of royal taxes and feudal dues. News of the formation of the National Assembly, the Tennis Court Oath and the king’s acceptance of reform caused excitement in peasant communities – but this excitement was short lived. In mid-July, news reached the provinces that the king had mobilised his troops and sacked his director of finance, Jacques Necker. This opened the gates for rumours and conspiracy theories that suggested a royalist or aristocratic counter-revolution was imminent. These stories took different forms in different regions. The most common rumour was that the king or his conservative nobles had employed bands of foreign troops or brigands, to march into the provinces and bring the people to their knees with violence, looting and wanton destruction.
These fears of royal and aristocratic retribution spread exponentially in late July (as Lefebvre himself put it, “fear bred fear”). Lefebvre and later historians have attempted to track the course of the Great Fear, albeit with only partial success. The circulation of rumour was both fast – almost too fast for the age – and sporadic. It did not always follow logical transport routes, such as rivers and roads. There are accounts of the same rumour appearing in places 20 miles apart on the same day. As these rumours circulated, some peasant communities became convinced that hired brigands were marching their way. In this paranoid climate even the most benign event – a sighting of strangers, movement in the distance, smoke on the horizon – could trigger a panicked response. In Angoulême, for example, thousands of men were armed and mobilised after spotting a cloud of raised dust. A peasant militia in Champagne was raised after locals saw men sneaking through a nearby wood; the ‘invaders’ turned out to be cows.
In some villages or small towns, the Great Fear had a measure of organisation and leadership. Locals would gather on the village green or square, hear from their local representatives and resolve to make a preemptive strike. Large bands of peasants, sometimes entire villages, gathered up arms and hit the road in search of targets. Their violence was not indiscriminate (they targeted only the symbols of feudal authority) nor was it bloodthirsty (fewer than 20 people were reported killed during the panic of July-August). The damage to private property, however, was extensive. The landed aristocracy and seigneurs suffered worse. Their châteaux (country homes) were besieged, invaded, looted and, in most cases, set alight. Written records bearing names, land holdings, feudal contracts and obligations – for example, ledgers showing which peasants were subject to the champart, whose quitrents were due, who owed labour for the corvée – were eagerly sought and immediately destroyed. If this sabotage did not kill off seigneurial feudalism, the peasants hoped, it would at least make it unworkable.
The worst of the Great Fear riots broke out in Dauphiné, south-eastern France, in late July. Beginning in Bourgoin, gangs of peasants engaged in a five-day orgy of destruction, ransacking and burning numerous châteaux until they were dispersed by volunteer soldiers from Lyons and Grenoble. The nobles themselves were not harmed – unless they tried to resist. Lefebvre reports only three murders during the Great Fear. One of the victims was Michel de Montesson, a nobleman from Douillet who weeks before had sat with the Second Estate at Versailles. Scores of nobles were chased out of their homes, if not the district. There were instances of aristocrats being held to ransom and forced to renounce their feudal rights over peasants on the estate. Some nobles were themselves taken in by rumours of roaming brigands. At Limousin in central France, Baron de Drouhet and Baron de Belinay gathered a militia to protect the citizens of Saint-Angel from a rumoured attack. Unfortunately for both barons, guards at Saint-Angel mistook them for spies; they were bound and gagged and transported by cart to Limoges.
The Great Fear was a most peculiar type of uprising in that it was spontaneous, sporadic and disorganised. Historians have not yet presented a convincing account of what drove the panic of July and August 1789. One theory, advanced by Mary Matossian in the late 1980s, was that riotous peasants had eaten stored flour contaminated with ergot. The ergot fungus contains lysergic acid, the active compound in the narcotic LSD, and if eaten in sufficient quantities can cause hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Whatever its true causes, the Great Fear had three significant outcomes. First, it showed the peasantry could mobilise to defend itself against an aristocratic counter-revolution. Second, it was destructive and eradicated many aspects of an already weakening seigneurial system. Third, the Great Fear sent a clear message to members of the National Constituent Assembly about the depth of peasant hatred toward feudal dues.
1. The Great Fear (Grande Peur) was a brief but intense wave of peasant riots and uprisings in July and August 1789, triggered by political unrest, rumour and panic.
2. The context for this panic was the economic suffering of mid-1789, the political developments at Versailles and the peasantry’s long-standing fear and suspicion of outsiders.
3. In mid July peasants heard rumours that the king and/or his aristocrats had hired gangs of mercenaries or brigands to destroy their crops or property, as a means of imposing political control.
4. They took up arms and mobilise to defend themselves. Some went on long marches, attacking the châteaux of nobles, looting, burning and destroying feudal records.
5. The Great Fear not only exposed the depth of peasant feeling about feudal dues, it caused some consternation among the Second Estate and the deputies of the National Constituent Assembly.
This page was written by Jennifer Llewellyn and Steve Thompson. To reference this page, use the following citation:
J. Llewellyn and S. Thompson, “The Great Fear”, Alpha History, accessed [today’s date], http://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/great-fear/.
On the fourth of July, a group of young boys thought that climbing to the top of dead-mans cliff would be a thrill they would never forget. The climb was full of narrow paths and dagger-like rocks. They had precluded that the trek up to the cliff would be their only difficulty. The eldest and most courage’s boy of the group reached the summit first. As the boy peeked over the edge into the water his heart sank. “ Is this the same cliff we had looked at from the water,” he thought to himself. Fear came over him as the other boys ran up behind him. “Jump, jump!” They shouted. He tried to speak but nothing came out. Not wanting them to think of him as a coward, he stepped toward the edge. He had jumped from a small cliff in the past and new all to well what the consequences were if he landed wrong in the water. Heart throbbing, legs shaking, skin sweating, and lungs gasping, he prepared to take the plunge.
What the boy is experiencing is called fear. Fear is an unpleasant often strong emotion caused by anticipation or awareness of danger. In the boy’s case, the danger of not landing in the water perfectly strait could cause him bodily harm. The words dread, fright, alarm, panic, and terror, are essentially all terms that express different levels of fear. Fear is the most general term and implies anxiety and loss of courage. Everyone on the face of the earth has experienced this emotion. Different elements bring fear to peoples mind. The fear of heights played a large roll in the boy’s uncertainty in jumping. Some of the many fears people experience include: heights, death, abandonment, eternity, and ghosts.
The causes of fear that one may experience can be traced back to his earliest childhood memories. A painful experience on a bicycle may generate a fear of riding a bike for many years. A near drowning experience while learning to swim could make one fear the water for the rest of his life. When I was nine years old I saw a horror movie about clown dolls. At night the dolls would come to life and torture people. For five years after I saw that movie I would have nightmares. And still to this day I cannot sleep in a room that has a clown in it. Fear causes anticipation in ones mind and an awareness of danger. Associating a physical or mental pain with an activity or object makes one have a fear of the dangers associated with it.
There are three different types of fear: superstitious, intelligent, and uncertainty. Superstitious fear is a fear of imaginary and make-believe things. The “monsters” in the closet are a fear that young children have that is totally superficial. The television shows that a kid sees or the stories that are told to him by other siblings can cause his imagination to make up a creature that want to “get” him in his sleep. Intelligent fear is one that comes as one gets older and gains more knowledge of the world around him. A girl that carries mace with her as she walks home through a bad part of town is scared of getting raped or robbed. She is only fearful of getting raped or robbed because she has either read the newspaper or saw on the news, people who have been attach in that part of the town. The fear of uncertainty is, not knowing the outcome of ones action. The boy that was about to jump off the cliff was uncertain to whether or not he would land safely in the water. Also being uncertain of whether of not the water is deep enough plays a role in his uncertainty of the task. Fear is a natural emotion but having knowledge about ones surroundings can give enough courage to face those fears with some confidence. And that little bit of confidence is what one needs to safely overcome the challenge.
Fear is not a good feeling; there is no freedom, happiness, or admiralty in it. One can spend a lifetime trying to conquer all his fears and never triumph. However that does not mean that one should not try. I read an inspiring quote a long time ago that read “There can be no courage without fear and no success without courage. Overcoming a fear will develop courage to take on more of life’s obstacles. The boy that was debating jumping off that cliff had two options. One being that he could try warming up on a smaller jump and progressively jumping higher. Or two, He could just jump and risk personal injury. The first is the best way in overcoming ones fears. By knowing the skills on the intermediate level first, one can safely move up to the more difficult advanced trials.
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