Berowne enters, carrying a paper that contains a poem to Rosaline. He hears someone else coming and hides. The King enters in a love-induced swoon and reads from a poem he has written. Berowne is surprised to learn that the King is also in love. The King hears Longaville approaching, also reading, and hides. Longaville enters, speaks of his love for Maria, and begins to read from a poem he has written. He hides when he hears another approaching, and Dumaine enters, moaning longingly for Kate. He reads an ode that he has written, and laments that his friends do not share his suffering.
Longaville advances to chide Dumaine, and, at this, the King advances and reveals that he has heard of Longaville's love for Maria. He scolds the two lords for breaking their oath and asks, "[W]hat will Berowne say when that he shall hear/ A faith infringed, which such zeal did swear?" (IV.iii.143-4). Berowne advances and asks the King, "what grace hast thou, thus to reprove/ These worms for loving, that art most in love?" (IV.iii.151-2). He reprimands the three men for breaking their oath and says, "I, that am honest; I, that hold it sin/ To break the vow I am engaged in;/ I am betray'd, by keeping company/ With men like you, men of inconstancy" (IV.iii.175-8).
Jaquenetta and Costard enter with the letter, telling the King that it amounts to treason. He gives Berowne the letter to read, and Berowne tears it up upon recognizing it as his verses to Rosaline. Dumaine finds a piece of the letter with Berowne's name on it, and Berowne confesses that he, too, is in love. The four men begin to argue about which of their loves is the most beautiful.
The King realizes that they are all in love "and thereby all forsworn" (Berowne, IV.iii.280). He asks Berowne to "prove/ Our loving lawful, and our faith not torn" (IV.iii.281-2). Berowne makes a long speech in which he argues that to look at a woman is the best way to learn beauty. He decides, therefore, that their scholarship oath led them further away from true study. The King seems to accept this argument, and they resolve to woo the women.
This scene illustrates the use of the aside, a common technique in Shakespearean drama. An aside occurs when one of the characters is supposedly hidden and speaks to the audience without being heard by the other characters. It is indicated by placing the word aside in parentheses after the character's name and before their speech; an aside allows the audience to observe the characters observing each other. This technique is used to a comedic extent in this scene when three characters, in turn, are hidden and revealed.
Berowne comments on his role as the first to hide: "All hid, all hid, an old infant play./ Like a demigod here sit I in the sky,/ And wretched fools' secrets heedfully o'er-eye" (IV.iii.76-8). Here he specifically mentions overhearing and witnessing the secrets of his friends, fulfilling the primary function of the aside as a plot device. Berowne refers to his friends as "wretched fools," even though he finds himself in exactly the same situation.
Love's Labour's LostPlease see the bottom of the page for explanatory notes.
|ACT IV SCENE I||The Park.|
|Enter the PRINCESS, and her train,|
a Forester, BOYET, ROSALINE, MARIA, and KATHARINE.
|PRINCESS||Was that the king, that spurred his horse so hard|
|Against the steep uprising of the hill?|
|BOYET||I know not; but I think it was not he.|
|PRINCESS||Whoe'er a' was, a' show'd a mounting mind.|
|Well, lords, to-day we shall have our dispatch:|
|On Saturday we will return to France.|
|Then, forester, my friend, where is the bush|
|That we must stand and play the murtherer in?|
|Forester||Hereby, upon the edge of yonder coppice;|
|A stand where you may make the fairest shoot.||10|
|PRINCESS||I thank my beauty, I am fair that shoot,|
|And thereupon thou speak'st the fairest shoot.|
|Forester||Pardon me, madam, for I meant not so.|
|PRINCESS||What, what? first praise me and again say no?|
|O short-lived pride! Not fair? alack for woe!|
|Forester||Yes, madam, fair.|
|PRINCESS||Nay, never paint me now:|
|Where fair is not, praise cannot mend the brow.|
|Here, good my glass, take this for telling true:|
|Fair payment for foul words is more than due.|
|Forester||Nothing but fair is that which you inherit.||20|
|PRINCESS||See see, my beauty will be saved by merit!|
|O heresy in fair, fit for these days!|
|A giving hand, though foul, shall have fair praise.|
|But come, the bow: now mercy goes to kill,|
|And shooting well is then accounted ill.|
|Thus will I save my credit in the shoot:|
|Not wounding, pity would not let me do't;|
|If wounding, then it was to show my skill,|
|That more for praise than purpose meant to kill.|
|And out of question so it is sometimes,||30|
|Glory grows guilty of detested crimes,|
|When, for fame's sake, for praise, an outward part,|
|We bend to that the working of the heart;|
|As I for praise alone now seek to spill|
|The poor deer's blood, that my heart means no ill.|
|BOYET||Do not curst wives hold that self-sovereignty|
|Only for praise sake, when they strive to be|
|Lords o'er their lords?|
|PRINCESS||Only for praise: and praise we may afford|
|To any lady that subdues a lord.|
|BOYET||Here comes a member of the commonwealth.|
|COSTARD||God dig-you-den all! Pray you, which is the head lady?|
|PRINCESS||Thou shalt know her, fellow, by the rest that have no heads.|
|COSTARD||Which is the greatest lady, the highest?|
|PRINCESS||The thickest and the tallest.|
|COSTARD||The thickest and the tallest! it is so; truth is truth.|
|An your waist, mistress, were as slender as my wit,|
|One o' these maids' girdles for your waist should be fit.||50|
|Are not you the chief woman? you are the thickest here.|
|PRINCESS||What's your will, sir? what's your will?|
|COSTARD||I have a letter from Monsieur Biron to one Lady Rosaline.|
|PRINCESS||O, thy letter, thy letter! he's a good friend of mine:|
|Stand aside, good bearer. Boyet, you can carve;|
|Break up this capon.|
|BOYET||I am bound to serve.|
|This letter is mistook, it importeth none here;|
|It is writ to Jaquenetta.|
|PRINCESS||We will read it, I swear.|
|Break the neck of the wax, and every one give ear.||59|
|[ Reads. ]|
|BOYET||'By heaven, that thou art fair, is most infallible;|
|true, that thou art beauteous; truth itself, that|
|thou art lovely. More fairer than fair, beautiful|
|than beauteous, truer than truth itself, have|
|commiseration on thy heroical vassal! The|
|magnanimous and most illustrate king Cophetua set|
|eye upon the pernicious and indubitate beggar|
|Zenelophon; and he it was that might rightly say,|
|Veni, vidi, vici; which to annothanize in the||70|
|vulgar,--O base and obscure vulgar!--videlicet, He|
|came, saw, and overcame: he came, one; saw two;|
|overcame, three. Who came? the king: why did he|
|come? to see: why did he see? to overcome: to|
|whom came he? to the beggar: what saw he? the|
|beggar: who overcame he? the beggar. The|
|conclusion is victory: on whose side? the king's.|
|The captive is enriched: on whose side? the|
|beggar's. The catastrophe is a nuptial: on whose|
|side? the king's: no, on both in one, or one in|
|both. I am the king; for so stands the comparison:|
|thou the beggar; for so witnesseth thy lowliness.|
|Shall I command thy love? I may: shall I enforce|
|thy love? I could: shall I entreat thy love? I|
|will. What shalt thou exchange for rags? robes;|
|for tittles? titles; for thyself? me. Thus,|
|expecting thy reply, I profane my lips on thy foot,|
|my eyes on thy picture. and my heart on thy every|
|part. Thine, in the dearest design of industry,|
|DON ADRIANO DE ARMADO.'|
|Thus dost thou hear the Nemean lion roar|
|'Gainst thee, thou lamb, that standest as his prey.|
|Submissive fall his princely feet before,|
|And he from forage will incline to play:|
|But if thou strive, poor soul, what art thou then?|
|Food for his rage, repasture for his den.|
|PRINCESS||What plume of feathers is he that indited this letter?|
|What vane? what weathercock? did you ever hear better?|
|BOYET||I am much deceived but I remember the style.||91|
|PRINCESS||Else your memory is bad, going o'er it erewhile.|
|BOYET||This Armado is a Spaniard, that keeps here in court;|
|A phantasime, a Monarcho, and one that makes sport|
|To the prince and his bookmates.|
|PRINCESS||Thou fellow, a word:|
|Who gave thee this letter?||105|
|COSTARD||I told you; my lord.|
|PRINCESS||To whom shouldst thou give it?|
|COSTARD||From my lord to my lady.|
|PRINCESS||From which lord to which lady?|
|COSTARD||From my lord Biron, a good master of mine,||109|
|To a lady of France that he call'd Rosaline.|
|PRINCESS||Thou hast mistaken his letter. Come, lords, away.|
|Here, sweet, put up this: 'twill be thine another day.|
|Exeunt PRINCESS and train.|
|BOYET||Who is the suitor? who is the suitor?|
|ROSALINE||Shall I teach you to know?|
|BOYET||Ay, my continent of beauty.|
|ROSALINE||Why, she that bears the bow.|
|Finely put off!|
|BOYET||My lady goes to kill horns; but, if thou marry,|
|Hang me by the neck, if horns that year miscarry.|
|Finely put on!|
|ROSALINE||Well, then, I am the shooter.|
|BOYET||And who is your deer?|
|ROSALINE||If we choose by the horns, yourself come not near.||120|
|Finely put on, indeed!|
|MARIA||You still wrangle with her, Boyet, and she strikes|
|at the brow.|
|BOYET||But she herself is hit lower: have I hit her now?|
|ROSALINE||Shall I come upon thee with an old saying, that was|
|a man when King Pepin of France was a little boy, as|
|touching the hit it?|
|BOYET||So I may answer thee with one as old, that was a|
|woman when Queen Guinover of Britain was a little|
|wench, as touching the hit it.|
|ROSALINE||Thou canst not hit it, hit it, hit it,|
|Thou canst not hit it, my good man.|
|BOYET||An I cannot, cannot, cannot,|
|An I cannot, another can.|
|Exeunt ROSALINE and KATHARINE.|
|COSTARD||By my troth, most pleasant: how both did fit it!|
|MARIA||A mark marvellous well shot, for they both did hit it.|
|BOYET||A mark! O, mark but that mark! A mark, says my lady!|
|Let the mark have a prick in't, to mete at, if it may be.|
|MARIA||Wide o' the bow hand! i' faith, your hand is out.|
|COSTARD||Indeed, a' must shoot nearer, or he'll ne'er hit the clout.|
|BOYET||An if my hand be out, then belike your hand is in.||130|
|COSTARD||Then will she get the upshoot by cleaving the pin.|
|MARIA||Come, come, you talk greasily; your lips grow foul.|
|COSTARD||She's too hard for you at pricks, sir: challenge her to bowl.|
|BOYET||I fear too much rubbing. Good night, my good owl.|
|Exeunt BOYET and MARIA.|
|COSTARD||By my soul, a swain! a most simple clown!|
|Lord, Lord, how the ladies and I have put him down!|
|Exit COSTARD, running.|
Love's Labour's Lost, Act 4, Scene 2
Explanatory Notes for Act 4, Scene 1
From Love's Labour's Lost. Ed. William Rolfe. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Abbreviations Used in the Notes
1. Was that the king, etc. "This is just one of those touches that S. throws in, to mark the way in which a woman unconsciously betrays her growing preference for a man who loves her. The princess recognizes the horseman, though he is at such a distance that her attendant lord is unable to distinguish whether it be the king or not; and then she immediately covers her self-betrayal by the pretendedly indifferent words, Whoever he was, etc. S. in no one of his wondrous and numerous instances of insight into the human heart more marvellously manifests his magic power of perception than in his discernment of the workings of female nature; its delicacies, its subtleties, its reticences, its revelations, its innocent reserves, and its artless confessions. He, of all masculine writers, was most truly feminine in his knowledge of what passes within a woman's heart, and the multiform ways in which it expresses itself through a woman's acts, words, manner nay even her very silence. He knew the eloquence of a look, the significance of a gesture, the interpretation of a tacit admission; and, moreover, he knew how to convey them in his might of expression by ingenious inference" (Clarke).
10. Stand. Used in the technical sense of the hunter's station or hiding-place when waiting for game. See Cymb. p. 182. K. remarks: "Royal and noble ladies, in the days of Elizabeth, delighted in the somewhat unrefined sport of shooting deer with a cross-bow. In the 'alleys green' of Windsor or of Greenwich parks, the queen would take her stand, on an elevated platform, and, as the pricket or the buck was driven past her, would aim the death-shaft, amid the acclamations of her admiring courtiers. The ladies, it appears, were skilful enough at this sylvan butchering. Sir Francis Leake writes to the Earl of Shrewsbury 'Your lordship has sent me a very great and fat stag, the welcomer being stricken by your right honourable lady's hand.' The practice was as old as the romances of the Middle Ages. But, in those days, the ladies were sometimes not so expert as the Countess of Shrewsbury; for, in the history of Prince Arthur, a fair huntress wounds Sir Launcelot of the Lake, instead of the stag at which she aims."
17. Fair. For its use as a noun, cf. M. N. D. p. 130, note on Your fair.
18. Good my glass. My good glass; referring sportively to the forester. Johnson supposed the glass to be "a small mirror set in gold hanging at her girdle," according to the fashion of French ladies at that time and of English ladies also, as Stubbes tells us in his Anatomie of Abuses: "they must haue their looking glasses caryed with them whersoeuer they go. And good reason, for els how cold they see the deuil in them?"
35. That my heart means no ill. That is, means no ill to. That is treated like the dative him in "never meant him any ill" (2 Hen. VI. ii. 391), etc.
36. Curst. Shrewish. See M. N. D. p. 167. Self-sovereignty. "Not a sovereignty over, but in themselves. So self-sufficiency, self-consequence, etc." (Mason). Schmidt takes it to be = "that self sovereignty," or that same sovereignty. Cf. Gr. 20.
37. Praise sake. See Cor. p. 231 (on Conscience sake), or Gr. 217, 471.
41. The commonwealth. That is, of the "new-modelled society" of the king and his associates (Mason). Johnson makes it "the common people." The Var. of 1821 gives this line to the princess; not noted in the Camb. ed.
42. God dig-you-den. God give you good even. See R. and J. p. 148 (note on Good-den), or Hen. V. p. 164 (note on God-den).
56. Break up this capon. That is, open this letter. Here break up is = the preceding carve. It is applied to opening a despatch (the "sealed-up oracle") in W. T. iii. 2. 132: "Break up the seals and read." See also M. of V. ii. 4. 10: "to break up this" (a letter), and the note in our ed. p. 141. Capon is used like poulet in French for a love-letter. Farmer quotes Henry IV. as saying: "My niece of Guise would please me best, notwithstanding the malicious reports that she loves poulets in paper better than in a fricasee."
57. Importeth. Concerneth.
64. Illustrate. Illustrious; used again by Holofernes in v. I. 109 below. It is often used by Chapman; as in Iliad, xi.: "Illustrate Hector." For King Cophetua, see on i. 2. 103 above.
65. Zenelophon. Coll. reads "Penelophon," which is the name in the ballad.
66. Annothanize. The quartos and ist folio have "annothanize," the later folios "anatomize," which many eds. follow. Either word would suit Armado well enough.
83-88. Thus dost than hear, etc. These lines are appended to the letter as a quotation, and Warb. thought that they were really from some ridiculous poem of the time. The Nemean lion is mentioned again in Ham. i. 4. 83, where Nemean is accented as here.
88. Repasture. Repast, food.
92. Going o'er it. For the play upon style, see on i. i. 196 above. Erewhile = just now.
94. Phantasime. Fantastic; as in v. i. 18 below. The later folios have "phantasme," and most of the modern eds. "phantasm." Monarcho the name of an Italian, a fantastic character of the time, referred to by Meres, Nash, Churchyard, and other writers.
103. Suitor. This seems to have been pronounced shooter, and that is the spelling of the early eds. here. Steevens and Malone quote sundry passages from contemporary writers illustrating the old pronunciation. In A. and C. v. 2. 105, Pope and Malone took the "suites" or "suits" of the folio to be an error for "shoots."
104. My continent of beauty. Cf. Haml. v. 2. 115: "you shall find in him the continent of what part a gentleman would see."
109. Your deer. The play on deer and dear was a favourite one. Cf. V. and A. 231, P. P. 300, M. W. v. 5. 18, 123, T. S. v. 2. 56, I Hen. IV. v. 4. 107, Macb. iv. 3. 206, etc.
110. By the horns. The much-worn joke on the horns of the cuckold.
118. Queen Guinever. The unfaithful queen of Arthur.
127. Prick. The point in the centre of the mark, or target. Mete at. To measure with the eye in aiming, hence to aim at.
128. Wide o' the bow-hand. "A good deal to the left of the mark; a term still retained in modern archery" (Douce). The bow-hand was the hand holding the bow, or the left hand.
129. Clout. "The white mark at which archers took their aim. The pin was the wooden pin that upheld it" (Steevens). See 2 Hen. IV. p. 176 (note on Clapped i' the clout) and R. and J. p. 170 ( The very pin, etc.)
132. Greasily. Grossly.
134. Rubbing. A term in bowling. Cf Rich. II. p. 197, note on Rubs.
136. Lord, Lord, etc. Here the early eds. (and the modern ones except H[udson].) insert the seven lines, iii. i. 129-135.
137. Sola, sola! Costard hears the noise of the hunters, and runs to join them, with a shout to attract their attention. Cf. M. of V. v. 1.39, where Launcelot enters with the same cry.
How to cite the explanatory notes:
Shakespeare, William. Love's Labour's Lost. Ed. William Rolfe. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1899. Shakespeare Online. 10 Aug. 2013. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/LLL_4_1.html >.
How to cite the sidebars:
Mabillard, Amanda. Notes on Shakespeare. Shakespeare Online. 10 Aug. 2013. < http://www.shakespeare-online.com/plays/LLL_4_1.html >.