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EPA On-line Resources
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- The Associated Press Stylebook, 2007, The Associated Press publisher
- The Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, Fourth Edition, 2000, Allyn & Bacon
- Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Edition, 1998, Merriam-Webster publisher
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United States Code and Federal Government Regulations
- Title 44 of the United States Code, Public Printing and Documents, contains the broad legal framework for all Government publishing.
- Joint Committee on Printing, Government Printing and Binding Regulations, contains the authority for Government printing and binding.
- OMB Circular A-25 describes free distribution of Government documents.
EPA Orders and Transmittals
- Order 1000.25, Use of Recycled Paper (PDF)(1 pg, 55 K) Intranet, states: "...contractors use recycled paper for all reports required for delivery to the Agency."
- Order 1015.1B, EPA Identification Signs at Project Sites (PDF)(2 pp, 97 K)Intranet, applies to "sites of projects which are operated or sponsored by EPA and applies to publicly visible construction site and demonstration project". It prohibits the appearance of "names of Program Offices".
- Order 1015.2A, EPA Seal and Agency Identifier (PDF)(4 pp, 144 K)Intranet, governs "visual communications" and emphasizes: "...all organizational units use...this order and those in the EPA Graphic Standards System Handbook..." It names the Director of the Office of Public Awareness (now, Office of Public Affairs) as responsible for:implementation and continuous management of the EPA Graphic Standards System including supplements and revisions to the standards handbook and the granting or denying of exceptions. This Order states in part:
3a.Use of the Official Agency Seal will continue on all stationery and on flags, buildings, and project identifications signs. Use of the Seal is optional on calling cards and official Agency reports, such as reports to Congress, foreign governments, and other Federal agencies.
3b.The Agency will use the Agency Identifier on all brochures and other printed matter.
3c.This Agency will not use any visual identification forms other than those in this Order.
The Order also prohibits the use of EPA symbols for commercial purposes or for promotion or sale of private goods/services.
- Order 1440.7, Hazard Communications (PDF)(7 pp, 378 K)Intranet, establishes minimum requirementsfor the hazard communication program.00.4A, EPA Publication Review Procedures, establishes policy and procedural requirements for the review of materials published or issued by the EPA and that the aforementioned have been developed using methodology which will achieve high quality results. This order seeks to clarify EPA responsibilities for information published or issued and provides for the expeditious approval of publications. With regard to decentralization, it empowers senior staff at Office and Regional level with responsibility for 'substance, form and policy implications of materials and provides these officials with wide latitude for them to establish internal review procedures and controls for quality and provides for use of a formal concurrence form. With regard to centralization, it requires forwarding of any material that has policy implications to the Office of External Affairs, a.k.a. Office of Public Affairs.
- Order 2510.1, Policy for the Procurement of Employee Business Cards (PDF)(5 pp, 341 K)Intranet, provides guidance on using EPA appropriated funds to procure employee business cards.
- Order 4800.1A1, EPA Policy for Providing Wearing Apparel to Employees (PDF)(5 pp, 55 K)Intranet
- EPA Information Policy, EPA Classification No. 2182.0, CIO Transmittal No. 08-003, Children's Privacy and Children's Copyright, protects the privacy of children.
- EPA Information Policy, EPA Classification No. 2181.0, CIO Transmittal No. 08-002, Posting Copyrighted Works on EPA Web Site, established EPA policy regarding the appropriate use of copyrighted works.
- EPA Information Policy, EPA Classification No. 2171.0, CIO Transmittal No. 08-006, Information Access Policy, describes coordination publications with GPO and how EPA must also submit government-sponsored scientific, technical, engineering and related business information to the National Technical Information Service as required by federal law, regulation or policy.
- EPA Information Policy, EPA Classification No. 2180, Web Governance and Management, establishes policy for EPA to operate and maintain a public access Web site to assist in fulfilling the Agency's mission. NSCEP maintains the web site for all of EPA's publications.
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EPA Manuals and Miscellaneous References
- Communications Manual, No. 1500 (PDF)(27 pp, 156 K)Intranet
- Contracts Management Manual, Section 13.3, use of the Government bankcard for printing. NOTE: this manual has been superseded by the EPA Acquisition Guide (EPAAG)Intranet
- Contracts Management Manual, Section 13.2, Procurement of Novelty Items for Distribution to the Public and/or to EPA Employees provides guidance regarding the purchase of novelty items to be distributed to the general public and/or to EPA employees. NOTE: this manual has been superseded by the EPA Acquisition Guide (EPAAG)Intranet
- Printing Manual 4822 (PDF)(105 pp, 1.36 MB)Intranet describes the policies and procedures for the preparation, procurement and distribution of printed and other reproduced written materials by EPA employees.
- "Promotional Communications for EPA, Guidance for EPA Staff," May 2008, produced by OPA. This manual sets forth policy and guidance for the use of promotional products in EPA communications programs.
- "EPA Best Practices Guide for Conferences," November 12, 1998, co-chaired by OCIR, OSWER and OW and produced by the Conference Guidance Workgroup, this manual describes printing of conference materials.
- EPA Memorandum dated January 19, 2001, issued by the EPA Deputy Administrator, describes EPA policy for environmental standards for EPA paper and publications.
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Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) 1552.208-70, clauses regarding printing by contractors, includes:
- Printing, composition, camera copy, desktop publishing, microform, duplication and requirement definitions;
- Affirmative requirements for double-sided coping and use of recycled paper;
- Permitted contractor activities;
- Violations; and
- Flowdown provision.
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EPA Printing Management Circulars
Circular 02-03, EPA/202/N-92/004, describes the policy regarding the use of coated paper stocks.
Circular 03-03, EPA/202/N-92/004 (PDF)(4 pp, 148 K)Intranet, describes use of the Government bankcard for photocopying needs.
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Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes
Written for undergraduate students and new graduate students in psychology (experimental), this handout provides information on writing in psychology and on experimental report and experimental article writing.
Contributors:Dana Lynn Driscoll, Aleksandra Kasztalska
Last Edited: 2013-03-12 08:39:20
Appendices: When appendices might be necessary
Appendices allow you to include detailed information in your paper that would be distracting in the main body of the paper. Examples of items you might have in an appendix include mathematical proofs, lists of words, the questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc.
Format of appendices
Your paper may have more than one appendix. Usually, each distinct item has its own appendix. If your paper only has one appendix, label it "Appendix" (without quotes.) If there is more than one appendix, label them "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. (without quotes) in the order that each item appears in the paper. In the main text, you should refer to the Appendices by their labels.
The actual format of the appendix will vary depending on the content; therefore, there is no single format. In general, the content of an appendix should conform to the appropriate APA style rules for formatting text.
Footnotes and Endnotes: When footnotes/endnotes might be necessary
Because APA style uses parenthetical citations, you do not need to use footnotes or endnotes to cite your sources. The only reasons you need to use footnotes are for explanatory (content) notes or copyright permission. Content footnotes contain information that supplements the text, but would be distracting or inappropriate to include in the body of the paper. In other words, content footnotes provide important information that is a tangent to what you are discussing in your paper.
The footnote should only express one idea. If it is longer than a few sentences, then you should consider putting this information in an appendix. Most authors do not use footnotes because they tend to be distracting to the readers. If the information is important, authors find a way to incorporate it into the text itself or put it in an appendix.
If you are including a quote that is longer than 500 words or a table or figure in your paper that was originally published elsewhere, then you need to include a footnote that acknowledges that you have permission from the owner of the copyright to use the material.
See our APA guidelines on Footnotes and Endnotes for more information.
When to use tables
Tables enable you to show your data in an easy to read format. However, you do not need to present all of your data in tabular form. Tables are only necessary for large amounts of data that would be too complicated in the text. If you only need to present a few numbers, you should do so directly in the text, not in a table.
How to use tables
Each table should be identified by a number, in the order that they appear in the text (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). When using a table, you need to refer to the table in the text (e.g., "As shown in Table 1,…") and point out to the reader what they should be looking for in the table. Do not discuss every piece of data that is in the table or else there is no point in having the table. Only mention the most important pieces of information from the table.
The table should also make sense on its own. Be sure to explain all abbreviations except standard abbreviations such as M, SD, and df. Don’t forget to identify the unit of measurement.
APA style has a specific format for tables. Tables should appear at the end of your paper, after the reference list and before any appendixes. Every table needs a unique title after its label. The title should be brief but clearly explain what is in the table.