Frida Kahlo Essay In Spanish


La vida de Frida Kahlo estuvo marcada por sufrimiento, heroísmo y genialidad extrema. Afectada por la polio desde su niñez y casi lisiada en un accidente de autobús a la edad de 18 años, Frida Kahlo desafió las probabilidades no sólo con aprender a caminar de nuevo (en dos ocasiones) sino al tomar al mundo por sorpresa con su visión artística sin igual.

"Yo pinto mi propia realidad. La única cosa que se es que pinto porque lo necesito, y yo pinto cualquier cosa que me cruce la cabeza sin ninguna consideración."

Frida Kahlo nació el 6 de Julio de 1907 cerca de la Ciudad de México. Sin embargo, ella siempre proclamó haber nacido en el año de la Revolución Mexicana (1910), con el fin de asociar su propio nacimiento con el del México moderno. Esta fue una de las tantas verdades a medias que Kahlo dijo sobre su vida, de alguna forma, con el fin de crear un mito por el cual siempre sería recordada.

El deseo de ser recordada fue siempre el tema central del arte de Frida Kahlo, tal y como lo refleja en muchos autorretratos que ella pintó (las imágenes por las que es mejor conocida). En una ocasión, bordó una almohada para su esposo, el muralista Diego Rivera, el cual decía: Recuérdame, mi amor.¨ 


desde el homenaje a la página web de Frida Kahlo

La obsesión de Frida con la mortalidad no era un misterio, mientras la enfermedad, los dolores agudos y la amenaza de la muerte se imponían en su joven vida. A la edad de seis años, Kahlo contrajo polio y tuvo que estar confinada en su habitación por 9 meses. Durante este tiempo creó una amiga imaginaria quien más tarde sería reflejada en una pintura titulada "Las dos Fridas."Al explicar la pintura en su diario ella escribió:

"Experimento intensamente una amistad imaginaria con una pequeña niña, más o menos de la misma 

edad que yo... La sigo en todos sus movimientos y mientras danza le cuento mis problemas secretos."


del sitio Web El Mundo de Frida Kahlo
Una vez superada la polio, Kahlo parecía estar determinada a vivir la vida en plenitud. Se convirtió en una marimacha en la escuela y la líder de un grupo de jóvenes rebeldes (la mayor parte de ellos eran niños), quienes cometieron interminables travesuras en la Escuela Nacional de Preparatoria donde ellos asistían. 

En 1925, Kahlo sufrió otra terrible tragedia cuando el autobús en el que ella viajaba chocó con un tranvía. Una vara de metal atravesó su cuerpo dejándola con múltiples heridas, incluida la fractura de la columna vertebral. Durante su larga recuperación, Kahlo descubrió su amor por la pintura. Utilizando un caballete en su regazo, que su madre le dio, y un espejo que había colgado desde el dosel, sobre su cama, Frida Kahlo produjo uno de sus primeros autorretratos. 

"You nunca perdí mi espíritu. Yo siempre pase mi tiempo pintando."
Milagrosamente Kahlo recuperó la habilidad de caminar, a pesar de que sería torturada por el dolor y la fatiga a lo largo de su vida y se sometería a más de 30 operaciones a causa de sus lesiones. 

Después de su recuperación, Kahlo empezó a frecuentar a un grupo de artistas mexicanos quienes le presentaron al bien conocido muralista mexicano, Diego Rivera. Rivera reconoció inmediatamente su talento y la animó a continuar pintando. Por sugerencia suya, Frida Kahlo también empezó a usar ropa tradicional mexicana, la cual consistía en largos y coloridos vestidos con joyería exótica.

En agosto de 1929, Rivera y Kahlo se casaron pero la unión de 25 años de duración resultaría tormentosa, deslucida por numerosos asuntos exteriores por ambas partes. Hermosa, inteligente e increíblemente talentosa, Kahlo era considerada como una de las mujeres más deseadas de su tiempo. Ella era asociada de forma romántica con estrellas del cine, artistas y políticos de muchas nacionalidades, muchos de los cuales fueron a visitarla a su Casa Azul en Coyoacán (Distrito Federal, México).

"Mis pinturas cargan con ellas el mensaje de dolor ... Pintar completó mi vida ... Yo creo que el trabajo es lo mejor."

La gente del mundo entero adoraba el trabajo de Frida Kahlo. Ella era alabada por el surrealista francés André Breton, y cenó y bebió vino con Picasso cuando visitó París. Tuvo tres exhibiciones durante su vida: una en Nueva York en 1938, otra en París en 1939 y finalmente una en la Ciudad de México en 1953. Pero para ese entonces las lesiones de Frida empezaron a tomar ventaja. Su salud era tan mala que los doctores le aconsejaron no asistir a la exhibición. Pero Kahlo no pudo ser disuadida. Minutos más tarde de iniciada la exhibición, el gemido de unas sirenas llenó el ambiente y una ambulancia arribó. Frida Kahlo fue conducida en andas y ubicada en el centro de la galería desde donde recibió a su corte durante toda la tarde.

El dolor del complejo matrimonio de Frida estuvo frecuentemente reflejado en sus pinturas, tal y como en una titulada: "Frida y Diego." A pesar de que la pareja se divorció en 1939, se reunieron en menos de un año. Por todas sus dificultades, ellos permanecieron tanto para uno como para el otro, como su gran amor y admirador.

Ese mismo año, Frida Kahlo sufrió otro gran golpe. Su pierna derecha tuvo que ser amputada por debajo de la rodilla debido a una infección de gangrena. El 13 de julio de 1954, a la edad de 47 años, Frida murió. La causa nunca fue oficialmente determinada. La última anotación del diario de Kahlo menciona: "Espero que la partida sea feliz y espero nunca regresar."

Poco se supo de ella fuera del mundo del arte hasta los años 90, en los que Frida ha llegado a ser –recientemente- un icono cultural. Numerosos artículos y libros han sido escritos acerca de ella. Frida ha sido el tema de tres documentales y de una película sobre su vida que fue estrenada el 25 de octubre del 2002. Para una mujer que quiso ser recordada, tal parece que su deseo se hizo realidad.


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Last edited 7/28/2014 11:02:15 AM

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Traducido por Grissel Villar

Frida Kahlo Essay

Frida Kahlo
By: Heather Waldroup

Frida Kahlo was a female Mexican painter of mixed heritage, born on July 6, 1907 and lived 47 painful years before passing away on July 13, 1954. Within her short life, Frida was slightly crippled from polio, suffered from a serious streetcar accident that left her infertile, married famous muralist Diego Rivera, divorced, remarried Rivera, became a political activist and rose to fame through her oil paintings all before succumbing to her poor health. She was an intelligent female in a society that wanted women to be pretty, submissive wives and mothers. She struggled with cultural demands of her gender in a time when women were demanding a change in their role. All these aspects of her life, and more, affected her art. She was a modern woman but her art had an indigenous background. Her most common genre was self-portrait and through a dramatic views of herself, she was capable of showing her view of the world. Frida was an active member of global society and was a powerful speaker for her beliefs through her art. Her art was controversial and attracted attention. She gained global recognition of her work because it’s complex and provocative, demanding discussion.

Frida Kahlo’s art seems very closely tied to the ups and downs of her marriage and her health. Her and her husband, Diego Rivera, had an unconventional, rocky relationship. There was a lack of fidelity on both parts. Diego was a well-known womanizer and it is thought that Kahlo reacted in kind as vengeance. A struggle exists between an artist and their work, I can only imagine the battles that occur when two artist marry. Within the beginning of their marriage, Frida painted Frida and Diego Rivera (Figure 1). At the time, Rivera was already a well known muralist twenty years her senior and her painting was thought to be no more than a hobby for a quiet wife. Throughout the years they knew each other, they continually painted the other. Frida overlaid his face on her forehead in Diego on my Mind (Figure 2) within which she also wears a dramatic, traditional Mexican headdress. Often times, in her self-portraits she’s wearing traditional Tahuana dress, as in Figure 1. Their marriage seemed to deteriorate in time with Kahlo’s rising success (Lindauer, 1999) until they divorced in 1939. Often times she has been criticized for focusing too much on her work instead of being the docile wife expected of her. The two remarried later that year but it was a financial arrangement and they did not share a marital bed.

While her husband is a common theme so are issues of her health. She often depicted her physical pain and struggle with graphic self-portraits. She “usually located narrative impact . . . directly onto her own body.” (Zavala, 2010) During her accident, she was impaled by a metal pole in her torso that exited through her vagina, breaking her pelvis in the process. She had extreme pain and struggled with the aftermath of her accident. The Broken Column (Figure 3) shows Kahlo’s nude torso with nails in her skin and her torso torn open to reveal a cracked column. The cracked pillar could be representative of the “broken column” of her spine. She was told she would most likely never carry a pregnancy to full term and this turned out to be true, unfortunately. After one of her miscarriages, Kahlo painted Henry Ford Hospital (Figure 4). It depicts the once again nude Kahlo on a bloody hospital bed, crying and holding images of a baby and a pelvis. She went through over 30 surgeries to try to repair the damage and she was just left in more pain. She’d started to lose faith in medicine when she painted Tree of Hope (Figure 5) where a prone, assumed Frida lies cut up and bleeding on a gurney while another Frida in a traditional dress holds a back brace. These self-portraits were a way for her to process the pain she felt. “In Frida’s work oil paint mixes with the blood of her inner monologue.” (Tibol, 1993) They are disturbing images that invoke fear in the viewer. Her pain is so blatantly displayed in her blood and nakedness that can be felt so strongly by the viewer. She demands you feel it with her direct stare.

Kahlo invoked such strong reactions to her work because they challenged traditional values with modern ideas, mixed with often violent and sexualized imagery. She used her art to bring attention to the mistreatment of women and to aid the feminist movement. A Few Small Nips (Figure 6) was painted after she read in the newspaper about a man who stabbed his cheating wife. Frida was herself a sexually promiscuous woman who’d had affairs with both men and women (Lindauer, 1999) so she would feel invested in how such women are viewed. She fought against the expectation of the meek female dressed up in lace and bows. She painted Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair (Figure 7) in which she’s wearing a man’s suit and has sheared her hair off. Men felt extremely threatened by this and took it as an assault on all males after her divorce from Rivera. They insinuated her to be a fallen woman and their fury further showed the social imbalance (Lindauer, 1999).

There was an excess of disparity in her art between the traditional and the modern. This is shown most clearly in two of her pieces: My Dress Hangs There (Figure 8) and Self-Portrait on the Border between Mexico and the United States (Figure 9). Both paintings have clear American references, as well as other global iconography, as drastic comparisons to traditional Mexican culture. In Figure 8, the US capitol is centered and the Statue of Liberty is in the background. Capitalist iconography is represented by the billboard of a well-dressed woman and the gas pump, all placed in a metropolitan setting with the populous barely noticeable at the bottom of the painting. The artist’s Tehuana dress hangs in the center, offering the juxtaposition of the two. Figure 9 shows the inequality between the two nations with the artist straddling the line separating them. On the Mexican side there are symbols representing ancient Mexican religion and flowers are growing out of the dirt. The American side is completely urbanized. The paintings are considered her most politically explicit because they “portray the corruption, alienation and/or dehumanization” of Americans (Lindauer, 1999). Both of these pieces would’ve sparked discussion in the early 1930’s when they were painted. Nothing makes a topic more well known than controversy.

Frida Kahlo’s harsh life produced provocative images that challenged society. She was wise beyond her years and was a fiery, rebellious spirit. She was a member of las pelonas in college, a group of young, Mexican women who cut their hair, learned how to drive cars and wore androgynous clothing. While consulting a specialist on another serious spinal surgery, she told her physicians to send him every, to write him letters describing her character, so he would understand that she’s a fighter (Lindauer, 1999). She taught painting to youth across Mexico, affecting hundreds of lives with her mentorship. In her final days she left the hospital, despite doctors’ orders, to participate in a political protest. She was in a wheelchair, having lost a leg to gangrene, sickly thin, with colorful yarn tied into her hair. The things she saw and experienced led to the dramatic works that flowed from her brush. She hadn’t planned to follow in the artistic footsteps of her photographer father and grandfather. Yet, look at the silver lining of the tragedy of her accident. Instead of becoming a doctor, she painted pictures that made people talk and discuss. She is now recognizable worldwide for her unique self-portraits.

Bibliography

Zavala, Adriana. Becoming Modern, Becoming Tradition: Women, Gender, and

Representation in Mexican Art. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP,

2010. Print.

Lindauer, Margaret A. Devouring Frida: The Art History and Popular Celebrity of Frida

Kahlo. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan UP, 1999. Print.

Tibol, Raquel. Frida Kahlo: An Open Life. University of New Mexico Press, 1993. Print.

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