Housing Research Paper

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Retrenchment and Social Housing: The Case of Finland

About 12 per cent of households in Finland live in social rental housing. The Finnish system of social housing is now facing challenges. Finland has reached a situation where large numbers of social rental dwellings are free from regulation because the state housing loans have been paid off, while new production of such housing is unable to make up for this loss. Potentially this means a decrease in the social rental housing stock. Current housing policy discourse sees social housing more as a failed policy than a necessary welfare measure. Such developments can be related to a larger change in the Finnish housing regime. It has entered a phase of retrenchment, where the government withdraws from its previous commitment to housing provision in order to give more room to market forces. Retrenchment has led to the strengthening of one of the basic features of Finnish housing policy, its selectiveness.

28.12.2017 | Hannu Ruonavaara | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 8-18 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.382

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

A Tale of two Busts (and a Boom): Irish Social Housing before and after the Global Financial Crisis

This article examines the marked decline in Irish social housing’s traditional role as the main source of accommodation for low-income households. We argue that although this policy redirection has become clearly apparent in the context of the Global Financial Crisis; its roots are, in fact, much older. They lie, not in Ireland’s most recent fiscal crisis, but in the last one which occurred between the late 1970s and mid-1980s. Changes made to arrangements for funding social housing during this time effected a long-term contraction in the social housing’s contribution to total housing output which, in turn, precipitated growing reliance on housing allowance subsidised private rented housing to accommodate this group.  The post-GFC austerity merely accelerated this long-term trend rather than signalled a new policy direction.

27.12.2017 | Michelle Norris, Michael Byrne | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 19-28 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.383

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

The French Social Housing Sector at the Crossroads of Budgetary Constraints and Social Missions

France has a high rate of production of new housing and the Global Financial Crisis has had little impact on a country of fixed-rate housing loans and strong guarantees for home-buyers. At the same time, the social rental sector, managed by a powerful network of public and private (not-for-profit) companies, has greatly increased its housing production thanks to the use of a financial mechanism that is independent of mainstream finance. Housing should be easily available throughout France. But this is not the case in the capital region and for some disadvantaged households. Critics regularly speak out against the deficiencies of French housing policies. Opponents of increased public spending consider that too much public money is being spent on this, while supporters of the free market say that the legal and institutional framework hinders private initiatives. Advocates of homeless people and low-income groups complain about the high cost of housing and segregation processes. This paper presents the debates and discussions regarding the pros and cons of housing policies in France at a time of severe budgetary constraints.

26.12.2017 | Jean-Pierre Schaefer | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 29-38 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.384

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Building Partnerships for Social Housing: Growing Housing Needs and Effective Solutions for Albanian Cities

Partnerships have a long history in European social housing with a mixed degree of success. They are an emerging model in post-socialist countries driven by budgetary constraints, rapid privatisation of public housing, and pragmatic efforts to respond to a complex housing affordability crisis. This article evaluates the challenges and opportunities of a new partnership model implemented in Albania to provide social rental housing. The project, launched in 2009, involves a legally defined partnership between central and local governments, the private sector, and an international financial institution. It has doubled the amount of municipal rental housing, addressing the needs of low- and mid-income households in Albania through the construction of 1,138 rental apartments for 4,300 people in eight cities. The allocation process, although politically charged, has been targeted. The partnership has capitalised on efficiencies, sound fiscal management, and cost and quality control. Despite some construction delays and potential concerns related to future sustainability, we argue that the partnership model is effective and has an important learning and innovation role for the future provision of social housing in Albania as well as in other post-socialist countries in South-East Europe facing similar challenges.

25.12.2017 | Sasha Tsenkova, Doris Andoni | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 39-53 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.385

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Mind the Poorest: Social Housing Provision in Post-crisis Romania

This paper reflects on recent social housing developments in Romania. It understands social housing as rental social housing and affordable housing, a differentiation that is not made at the national level and introduces a sub-type of affordable housing, which is little documented in current research and is here termed ‘self-help affordable housing’. The paper looks at the legacy of socialist housing and social housing before and after the crisis. It makes an important claim that needs further investigation: current social housing provision in Romania overlooks the poorest households. This has implications for the country’s political leadership; the capacity for financial and institutional innovation; and wider strategies for policy integration.

24.12.2017 | Catalina Turcu | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 54-66 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.386

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Social Housing Provided by the Third Sector: The Slovak Experience

This paper aims to describe the legislation of the social housing system in Slovakia and to analyse innovations in social housing provision. The paper contributes to the literature on innovative social housing solutions provided by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), or so-called third sector. The analysis reveals the main factors that may contribute to the success or failure of social innovations in housing provision by NGOs. Long-term community work, the education of future residents, and the participation of future residents in the construction of their homes are the main factors that support the spread of innovations in social housing. On the other hand, lack of cooperation from the government at all levels and low funding are the biggest constraining factors on innovation in social housing in Slovakia.

23.12.2017 | Mária Murray Svidroňová, Beata Mikušová Meričková, Juraj Nemec, Helena Kuvíková | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 67-75 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.387

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Utilising Social Housing during the Post-2009 Crisis: Problems and Constraints in the Case of Greece

How can European social housing institutions contribute to combating housing deprivation in the context of the post-2009 crisis? The paper examines the main issues and constraints in the Greek case by first questioning the extent of the immediate relevance of major established social housing models in western Europe vis-a-vis housing assistance for the needy and second by highlighting the exceptional conditions in the European South that make for very limited social housing sectors and a predominant bias in favour of widespread owner-occupation across all social classes. Both features are especially pronounced in Greece, where, in fact, social rented housing has never emerged as a viable model. Nevertheless, social housing assistance for renters based on fair allowances should be the main priority under the present crisis conditions, while ‘bricks-and-mortar’ social rented housing can only have a marginal role.

22.12.2017 | Dimitris Emmanuel | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 76-83 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.388

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

The Provision of Socially Minded Housing in Cyprus: Examining Historical References and Addressing Recent Challenges from an Architectural Perspective

The purpose of this paper is to examine the recent challenges faced by stakeholders concerned with providing socially minded housing in Cyprus in view of the increased need for affordable housing in the five years after the financial crisis, which hit Cyprus in the spring of 2013 and impacted households. The demand was exacerbated by the influx of immigrants from South-eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa in the same period. The paper discusses these challenges by examining the historical context of providing socially minded housing in Cyprus since the first institutional attempts were made in the years following the Second World War. The paper also presents some case studies, which are illustrated with design proposals that are the results of research in design by students and staff in the Department of Architecture of the University of Cyprus.

21.12.2017 | Andreas Savvides | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 84-98 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.389

Social Housing after the GFC: Further Evidence

Independent Evaluation of Social Housing Operations: Challenges and Lessons to Be Learned

In recent years, the Evaluation Department of the Council of Europe Development Bank has conducted a series of independent evaluations of CEB-financed operations in the social housing sector targeting special vulnerable groups. Building on evaluation evidence and experience, two strategic issues are presented: the high level of complexity of such operations and the various facets of their sustainability. This paper underlines the significant learning and accountability potential of evaluations of social housing operations. At the same time, it underscores the added value of a holistic approach to evaluation, in the face of a simplistic, but currently predominant, output-oriented focus during monitoring.

20.12.2017 | Luigi Cuna | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Pages: 99-106 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.2.390

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing Models: Past and Future

This paper looks at the rationale for social housing; examines the models that have been used in Europe over the last century and how social housing might be maintained into the future.

28.6.2017 | Christine Whitehead | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 11-20 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.320

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in England: Affordable vs ''Affordable''

England''s increasing housing affordability problem, widely described as a ''housing crisis'', has become a major public and political concern in recent years. The proportion of social housing has been shrinking for 40 years but there is no political appetite—at least under the current government—to reverse this. Policies are instead addressed at making some private housing more affordable and at increasing access to owner occupation by allowing more social tenants to buy their homes. The government has increased its control over the financial affairs of social landlords, who are responding by concentrating on those areas of activity where control is less stringent.

27.6.2017 | Kathleen Scanlon | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 21-30 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.321

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Reregulation and Residualization in Dutch Social Housing: A Critical Evaluation of New Policies

The Dutch social rental sector often serves as an example for other countries as a result of its large share and good quality housing. However, many things have changed in the sector in recent years. After 2011, the central government has regained its control over the housing associations. This was needed after the unacceptable amount of scandals that characterized Dutch social housing after 2000. Unfortunately, some of the new housing policies direct the sector into the direction of a residualization (the sector becomes smaller and there is a larger concentration of lower income groups). This is undesirable because the challenges that housing associations have to face are bigger than ever. Housing shortages are increasing, housing affordability is under pressure and spatial segregation is growing.

26.6.2017 | Joris Hoekstra | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 31-39 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.322

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Crisis? What Crisis? Social Renting in Flanders (Belgium) beyond the Financial Crisis

In this paper we look at the position of social renting in Flanders after the GFC. It is argued that the GFC has hardly affected the production levels of social rental dwellings. On the contrary levels remain higher than before the GFC. Starting from that, we briefly illustrate what the current debates in social rental housing are.

25.6.2017 | Pascal De Decker, Jana Verstraete, Isabelle Pannecoucke | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 40-51 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.323

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Social Homeownership Model – the Case of Norway

This article gives a brief overview of recent developments in Norwegian social housing emphasizing the years after the global financial crisis (GFC). In Norway, mass homeownership has been an important part of social housing in the post-war period. The GFC led to a more rigorous housing finance system, which in turn affected the possibilities of young adults entering homeownership. Nevertheless, the share of young homeowners has been stable or even growing in recent years. Today, social housing mainly refers to a rather marginal system providing housing for the most vulnerable groups.

24.6.2017 | Hans Christian Sandlie, Lars Gulbrandsen | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 52-60 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.324

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Germany: An Inevitably Shrinking Sector?

The role of the social housing sector as part of the German housing system has changed fundamentally since 1950. Social housing in Germany followed a number of common trends and features to be observed in most countries in Europe: delegation to local government, a narrow focus on fragile populations and a reduction in the proportion of social housing. The specific reasons for this are discussed as relating to the German background. Against a background of more and more tense housing markets the paper argues for a revitalization of social housing in Germany without repeating the old mistakes.

23.6.2017 | Stefan Kofner | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 61-71 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.325

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Situation of Social Housing in Switzerland

Without a national or cantonal policy for the provision of affordable, so-called social housing, Switzerland`s way is unique in Europe. Finding appropriate housing is left to the people themselves. The challenge of building sustainable communities in urban centres in Switzerland has to address the tight housing market due to economic growth, immigration, and the renewed attractiveness of urban living. In the absence of a national low-cost housing policy, every growing city thus has to design its own strategies and implement local policies and programmes in order to counteract such developments. The role of housing cooperatives is important now and in the future. The paper gives an overview on the Swiss situation after the GFC and discusses the successful strategies of the provision and protection of affordable housing in the major city of Zurich.

22.6.2017 | Marie Glaser | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 72-80 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.326

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in the Czech Republic: Change of Trend?

The goal of this paper is (1) to describe the history and the most recent development of social housing system in the Czech Republic and (2) critically assess earlier and recent attempts to solve missing social housing strategy in this country. In general, the paper intends to contribute to literature on housing policy formulation in countries in transition from planning to market economy and thus provide insight into main factors that may explain unsustainability and weakness of housing strategies in post-socialist environment. Lack of competence, constrained discussion during programme/strategy preparation and the dominance of ideology over rational argument are found to be critical factors for the past and possibly future social housing policy failures in the Czech Republic.

21.6.2017 | Martin Lux, Petr Sunega | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 81-89 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.327

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Post-crisis Hungary: A Reshaping of the Housing Regime under ‘Unorthodox’ Economic and Social Policy

Hungary stepped on a very specific path two years into the Global Financial Crisis and the recession in its wake, on which it replaced ‘traditional’ austerity programs with ‘unorthodox’ economic policy. This policy paradigm shift affected the emerging social housing policy in two respects. First, the mainstream approach to social problems related to worsening housing affordability (due to increased loan repayments and other cost items together with decreasing incomes) provided strong support for the middle class. Second, intervention toward low income households remained minimal, and served only to pacify political tensions. This dual approach characterized the policy of the government, and resulting shift in the social structure did not necessarily follow the direction policy makers intended. Programs aimed at the middle class were poorly targeted, and often helped the upper middle class the most, who again did not behave the way policy makers expected (which would have been increased consumption to stimulate economic growth). Programs aimed at low income groups rendered the social structure more rigid, decreased the chance of low income persons to escape from extreme poverty, and cemented the opportunity discrepancies between the rich and the poor. The most recent housing policy measures suggest that the mistakes committed in the 2000s will likely be repeated, and there are not measures in place which could correct their course.

20.6.2017 | József Hegedüs | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 90-101 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.328

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

"Just Another" or A "Genuine" Change in Slovenian Social Housing Strategy?

This paper provides an overview of developments affecting Slovenian social housing after the country’s transition to a market economy. It analyses the Slovenian institutional framework, its functioning and critically evaluates its sustainability. The economic and social impacts of the global financial crisis saw the sector face strong challenges and revealed its weaknesses. A new strategic document was adopted in 2015 to respond to the situation. Although this new document offers a transition to the more sustainable and better provision of social housing in practice, it is still too early for optimism since it would not be the first time in Slovenia that a strategic document has primarily remained only on the declaratory level.

19.6.2017 | Andreja Cirman | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 102-111 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.329

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Social Housing in Italy: Old Problems, Older Vices and Some New Virtues?

Social housing in Italy, its historical and recent developments, and its criticalities are discussed considering both the pre- and the post-crisis period. The main effects of the crisis on Italian households and the exacerbating of housing problems are also analysed. A critical review of the main policy instruments implemented before and after the crisis is provided, with a special focus on new models of intervention. It is not clear how the housing needs of low income households will be addressed in the near future. Traditional public-managed social housing has been left with insufficient resources while the newly-built affordable housing sector is mainly targeting mid-income households. Several new policy instruments have been deployed and billions of euros invested. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to observe a consistent strategy oriented to increasing the level of social protection in the housing domain, beyond the conventional management of “emergencies”. Keywords: economic crisis; housing policy; Italy; social housing.

18.6.2017 | Teresio Poggio, Dmitri Boreiko | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 112-123 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.330

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

More Social Housing? A Critical Analysis on Social Housing Provision in Spain

Since the 1950s Spain has developed a set of policies aimed at stimulating ownership through subsidies mainly in the form of interest rates or mortgage quotas to developers and households neglecting other forms of housing provision, for instance social rent. That system provided one off benefit to the developer and/or the purchaser and could not be reused to help other households. The financial crisis in 2008 evidenced the weakness of the Spanish housing system in providing affordable and secure shelter by means other than homeownership. The existent housing provision system failed to avoid the large number of evictions while simultaneously banks became owners of a large amount of empty dwellings. To some extent, the severity of the situation exerted considerable political pressure to devise a new framework for action to alleviate the housing problem in Spain. In this paper based on the post -crisis evidence we argue the need to reformulate approaches to provide adequate and affordable housing for certain collectives in Spain

17.6.2017 | Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway, Teresa Sánchez-Martínez | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 124-131 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.331

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

Moving to a New Housing Pattern? New Trends in Housing Supply and Demand in Times of Changing. The Portuguese Case

This article aims to explain the effects of the recent economic and financial crisis on housing conditions and the ability of Portuguese families to access housing. It also intends to discuss how the crisis is reconfiguring the housing patterns, in terms of access to housing and changes in public policies, questioning the predominant mode of access to housing based on homeownership. This article also discusses the role of social housing in the Portuguese housing system and the changes and challenges in this sector coming from the economic and financial constraints of families and the state. This article is structured in three parts. The first is an overview of the Portuguese housing system and social housing in particular, highlighting the conditions and reasons that led to a reduced social housing stock and to the predominance of homeownership. The second part discusses the impact of the crisis on families and the state, trying to demonstrate how the constraints on both are translated into (1) worsening housing conditions, (2) a diversification of groups struggling to access housing in the private market and (3) a reduction of affordable housing, pressing the social housing sector. Finally, the third part is a reflection on the changes that the crisis has had in the orientation of housing policies and their instruments, arguing that the patterns of the Portuguese housing system are changing with emphasis on the need to diversify the housing supply to increasingly diverse groups in housing need.

16.6.2017 | Teresa Costa Pinto | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 131-141 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.332

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Danish Social Housing Sector: Recent Changes and Future Challenges

With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which policies are trying to react upon. This means that the sector is at a cross-road as this paper will show. The future remains uncertain; depending to a large extent on the application of the policies already in place and policy reactions to the current challenges.

15.6.2017 | Rikke Skovgaard Nielsen, Christian Deichmann Haagerup | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 142-149 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.333

Social Housing after the GFC: New Trends across Europe

The Swedish Housing Market from a Low Income Perspective

After the economic crisis in the early 1990s there was excess supply of housing, but over the last 25 years demand has increased because of rising population, rising incomes and low levels of housing construction. The result has been rising prices and longer queues to (rent regulated) rental housing. The lack of affordable housing has made the situation especially difficult for low-income "outsiders", e.g. immigrant groups and various marginalized groups. In the debate about explanations and policies one can find demand for "more market", e.g. deregulating the rental market, weaken the municipal planning monopoly and cutting back on building regulations. There are also proposals for "less market", e.g. state directives about municipal planning volumes, subsidies to housing construction and more active municipal housing companies. As the current government is weak, most initiatives comes from the local level, e.g. both below market rents for lower income households and planning for more low-cost housing.

14.6.2017 | Hans Lind | Volume: 4 | Issue: 1 | Pages: 150-160 | 10.13060/23362839.2017.4.1.334


Students attending college have options regarding housing facilities. Many will live on-campus and have their housing fee added to their tuition bill. Others, however, will choose to live in apartments or housing facilities off-campus, paying rent to a landlord rather than their colleges or universities. Living off campus is often less expensive than residing on campus, and there are corporations who build elaborate student residences in order to compete for housing dollars. However, the studies below will show that students who live on campus tend to be more connected with the colleges they attend. As such, they persist at higher rates, have better grades, and have stronger social networks than do students who live off campus.

Keywords: Community College; Non-traditional Student; Off-campus Housing; On-campus Housing; Outsourcing; Residence Hall; Resident Assistant (RA); Retention; Theory of Integration; Traditional Student


One of the biggest transitions for traditional college students is leaving the comfort of their family home to move into a residence hall with a group of strangers; one, two, or three with whom they will share close proximity for several months. As most of those new students will find out, there are advantages and disadvantages to living on campus. For example, living on campus offers the advantage of being close to classes, services, and the dining hall. Many freshmen are not allowed to have vehicles on campus during their first year, however, so making a trip to a Superstore to stock up on supplies can be difficult. Also, students who live in residence halls have to abide by the rules of the hall and are supervised by a resident assistant (RA) and resident hall director at all times. In contrast, students who live off-campus are not supervised and can come and go as they please. This is convenient and independent living, but off-campus students have to get to campus for class and to meet with faculty members and other students, so transportation is often required. Also, off-campus students have to budget their money in order to pay rent and utilities and have to buy food and gas. On-campus students pay for everything except transportation simply by paying their tuition, usually a twice-yearly bill.

For colleges and universities, offering on-campus housing has benefits and drawbacks as well. Residential housing brings a financial resource to a school. However, on-campus housing also puts a great deal of responsibility on that school; students who get injured or behave irresponsibly are the ultimate responsibility of the college — regardless of their age — when they live on campus. Over the past twenty years, colleges have been able to out-source that responsibility by allowing large corporations to build housing complexes right on their campuses. This option removes liability from the college and keeps students close to college resources. In effect, colleges lease land to corporations that receive rent from students (so the corporations make a profit) while those same students are considered residential because they live on-campus. Some of these corporations actually compete with colleges and universities for student housing dollars. Rather than seeking land on a campus, they purchase property close by, construct housing complexes, and offer apartment-style living, which ultimately takes housing dollars away from the college.

In Plattsburgh, New York, United Group developed and built College Suites, a 390-bed complex for Plattsburgh State students in the fall of 2009. The facility held two and four-bedroom apartments and "a fitness center, cafe/student lounge, game room and laundry facilities. Other amenities included cable television, wireless Internet service and all utilities" (LoTemplio, 2009, 6) for a price tag of around $8,000 per year. A walk of less than two minutes took students from the new apartment building to campus, which offered residence hall housing for $3,000-$4,000 less than the rent at College Suites. The residence halls at Plattsburgh State, however, are not as self-contained as the Suites, and students with cars who live on campus rarely get to park right outside their back door like they do down the street at College Suites. The convenience of independent living is worth the extra cost for some students, and colleges and universities now must consider how to compete with private housing options.

Further Insights

Off-Campus Living

Student Impact

Realistically, the most important issue to consider about housing options is whether or not students are more academically successful in one situation or the other. It may be that students care more about the facility they live in than their success in college. According to Macintyre (2003), "students have become more demanding about the quality of their accommodation and are looking for self-contained single-room apartments and access to a range of additional facilities such as computer points, laundries and gymnasiums" (p. 110). A more recent study also found that students increasingly are preferring suite-style residence halls that have private rooms to traditional residence halls. (Sickler & Roskos, 2013). As a result of student demand, colleges have started to create apartment-like housing — similar to that offered by College s — for students to live on-campus as independently as possible. Another way to meet student demand for independence is for colleges to lease land to large corporations (like the one that owns College Suites) to construct apartment/housing complexes on campus property. In this situation, students pay rent to the company (or building manager) that owns the building, but they are still considered on-campus residents who are close to classes, dining halls, and support offices.

When living situations are looked at from an academic perspective, however, students choosing the off-campus option may be doing so at their academic peril. Housing that offers no supervision and no interaction with faculty or other campus administrators often results in students in academic difficulty. Both recent and historic research shows that students are more successful — academically and socially — when they live on-campus rather than off-campus (Macintyre, 2003, Potts & Schultz, 2008; Moeck, Hardy, Katsinas & Leech, 2007, p. 328). This success includes having higher grades and completing more credits per semester than students who do not live in residence halls (Macintyre, 2003, p. 111). Vincent Tinto, professor of education at Syracuse University, developed his Theory of Integration based on the idea that students who live on campus develop a connection with faculty, academic support administrators, student organizations, and campus employment opportunities which help them integrate into the campus community. This integration helps them persist in a way that off-campus students do not (Potts & Schultz, 2008).

Community Impact

Another consideration of student living is the effects that housing situations have on the community surrounding the campus. Many campuses are set up so that students can survive without having to leave during the semester. Laundry facilities, dining halls, and convenience stores tend to populate campuses that offer residential living. Still, most students need jobs or want to eat out or attend movies or clubs. Since not all college towns have public transportation, many students have their own vehicles (and maintain them) or pay for cabs to get where they want. As a result, communities thrive, and in some instances, rely on college students to stimulate the economy eight months out of the year.

According to Macintyre (2003), however, communities that house colleges and universities can experience economic disadvantages as well:

Firstly, the pressure of many students seeking accommodation [off-campus housing] has had the effect of driving up the property values of some communities to the point where some housing has been put beyond the reach of the local inhabitants. Secondly, as the universities have acted to relieve the pressure and have directly acquired property, the proportion of land excluded from residential taxes has increased and the local authorities have ultimately been left with less money to support the local community (p. 112).

Thus, a catch-22 exists: businesses need the financial stimulus of college student spending, yet the increase in property value makes the economic benefit difficult to appreciate.

In addition to this, communities suffer other negative consequences from the existence of colleges as well. Noise and destruction of property tend to be the most common. For example, residents in Plattsburgh "have for years complained about problems caused by drunken students who urinate on public property, scream during the middle of the night while stumbling home from downtown, destroy property and even enter residences, sometimes vomiting inside and passing out" (Bartlett, 2007, Law Changes). While these behaviors cannot be attributed to students who live on-campus or off-campus specifically, they do make tolerating college students as a whole difficult for community members. This is especially so when property values increase and that property is then damaged by temporary inhabitants who are not invested in the community as a whole.

Academic Honesty On

According to the Department of Education, almost all public universities offered some kind of distance learning opportunity...

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