Do You Repeat References In Bibliography

Chicago/Turabian Subsequent Notes

Once you have spelled out a source's information in full in its first note, all subsequent notes take a shorter form.

In addition to the shorter form, the Chicago Manual and Turabian identify rules for using the Latin abbreviation "Ibid." when you refer to one source twice (or more) in a row.

Shortened form

When citing a source you have already noted in full, use a shorter form so your reader knows what earlier source you are referring to.

Same work and author; only source by that author

If the work and the author remain the same and if you are using only one book or article by that author, simply give the author's last name and page reference:

First note

8. Raúl Sánchez, "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 243.

Subsequent note

22. Sánchez, 265.

Two or more works by same author

If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.

First note

1. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

Subsequent note

23. Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.

Two authors with the same last name

If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.

Latin abbreviations

When a note refers to the same work as the previous note, you can use "ibid." to refer back to the previous source. This is acceptable even if several pages of text separate the two notes.

"Ibid." is an abbreviation of the Latin word ibidem, which means "in the same place."

The abbreviation "Ibid." is followed by a page number if the page from which the second reference is taken is different from the first. If the pages are the same, no number is necessary.

Example notes

Note that the first source is given a shortened form in note 3, then referred to with "ibid." in notes 4 and 5.

1. Colleen Dunlavy, "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" in Major Problems in American Business History, ed. Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton (New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006), 260.

2. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

3. Dunlavy, 261.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 262.

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Reference List or Bibliography?

If you are using the Author-Date format the list of citations you referenced will be placed in the "Reference List" and the end of the paper. The References list should be alphabetized by authors last name to make it easy to find a citation referred to in a parenthetical reference used in the Author-Date format.  The following rules should be adhered to:   √ Start Reference list on new page √ Type the word References at the top, centered on line √ Set first line of the reference at left margin, indent all lines underneath in hanging indentation format √ Alphabetize by the author's last name (surname) √ For author's from eastern countries use the format the author uses in the work √ Alphabetize letter by letter, "nothing precedes something"  Brown, J. goes before Browning, A. √ Names beginning with Mac or Mc should be alphabetized as they are spelled √ References by the same author should be arranged chronologically with the earliest work first √ A one author work should be placed before a multi-author work that begins with the same author √ References by the same author or multiple authors (in the same order) should be alphabetized by title √ Use a "3-em dash" in place of repeated author's name ______. √ Works with no authors should be alphabetized by title, with the title in the author position √ Use Anonymous as an author only is the work is signed anonymously √ Alphabetize a group or organization name as author by the first significant word √ Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style for further information
If you are using the Note and Bibliography format the list of citations you referenced will be placed in the "Bibliography" at the end of the paper. The Bibliography should be alphabetized by authors last name to make it easy to find a citation. The Bibliography represents the resources you used in the Note section. Some authors choose not to include a full bibliography if the resources have been cited in the Note section.The following rules should be adhered to: √ Start Reference list on new page √ Type the word Bibliography at the top, centered on line √ Set first line of the reference at left margin, indent all lines underneath in hanging indentation format √ Alphabetize by the author's last name (surname) √ For author's from eastern countries use the format the author uses in the work √ Alphabetize letter by letter, "nothing precedes something" Brown, J. goes before Browning, A. √ Names beginning with Mac or Mc should be alphabetized as they are spelled √ References by the same author should be arranged chronologically with the earliest work first √ A one author work should be placed before a multi-author work that begins with the same author √ References by the same author or multiple authors (in the same order) should be alphabetized by title √ Use a "3-em dash" in place of repeated author's name ______. √ Works with no authors should be alphabetized by title, with the title in the author position √ Use Anonymous as an author only is the work is signed anonymously √ Alphabetize a group or organization name as author by the first significant word √ Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style for further information

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