Mgt111 Assignment Solution 2015 1040


Page No.1/713 http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs vuZs.net MGT502 Organizational Behavior All in One Solved MCQs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs

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MGT502 Organizational Behavior All in One Solved MCQs http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net

1) The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is a value statement. Such an opinion is the _____ component of an attitude. cognitive affective reactive behavioral Ref: The belief that "discrimination is wrong" is an example of the cognitive component of an attitude. 2) Leon Festinger would propose that the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by all of the following EXCEPT _____. the importance of the elements creating the dissonance. the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements. the rewards that may be involved in dissonance. the extent to which attitudes are widely held by society. Ref: According to Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance, the desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements, and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance

3) If attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals will most likely _____.

change their behavior change their attitudes http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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change either their attitudes or behavior do nothing

Ref: When experiencing cognitive dissonance, one can change the behavior, change the attitude, or decide that the behavior is not important after all.

4) _____ describes a positive feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. enlargement satisfaction engagement involvement Ref: Job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about your job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics.

5) Job _____ measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. commitment satisfaction involvement organization Ref: Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work that they do.

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6) _____ commitment refers to an employee's obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons.

Affective Continuance Theoretical Normative Ref: Normative commitment refers to an employee's obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons. For example, an employee who is spearheading a new initiative might remain with an employer because he feels it would negatively impact his employer if he left.

7) _____ refers to an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work she does. Employee engagement Normative commitment Cognitive support Job enrichment Ref: Employee engagement refers to an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work she does. A recent study of nearly 8,000 business units in 36 companies found that business units whose employees had high-average levels of engagement had higher levels of customer satisfaction, were more productive, had higher profits, and had lower levels of turnover and accidents.

8) People with positive _____ believe in their inner worth and basic competence. Locus of control http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Self-monitoring behavior Core self-evaluations Levels of enrichment Ref: People with positive core self-evaluations believe in their inner worth and basic competence. They are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core selfevaluations.

9) Quietly continuing to do your work, even though you're dissatisfied, is an example of _____ response to dissatisfaction. exit voice loyalty neglect Ref: Loyalty is passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to "do the right thing".

10) Steve is unhappy with his job. He takes every possible vacation and sick day and sometimes shows up for work late. He is expressing his dissatisfaction with a _____ response. exit voice loyalty neglect Ref: Neglect is passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate.

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11) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of physical ability? Stamina Strength Looks Dexterity Ref: Nine basic physical abilities are dynamic strength, trunk strength, static strength, explosive strength, extent flexibility, dynamic flexibility, body coordination, balance, and stamina.

12) The relationship between _____ and job performance is likely to be an issue of growing importance during the next decade. gender marital status age tenure Ref: The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. Workers 55 and older are currently the fastest-growing sector of the labor force. In addition, federal legislation has outlawed mandatory retirement at the age of 70.

13) According to your text, which is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate for women? Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men. Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family. Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men and are consequently absent more often. Women generally have jobs for which a temporary replacement can be hired so absences are more permissible.

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Ref: Most research on women's absenteeism rates has been conducted in North America and North American culture has historically placed home responsibilities with women. Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.

14) _____ is the learning concept of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the desired new behavior.

Modeling Shaping Classical conditioning Social learning Ref: We shape behavior by systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves the individual closer to the desired response.

15) An example of _____ is when an employee receives a one-week suspension from work and is fined $200 for stealing company property. penalization punishment extinction negative reinforcement Ref: Punishment is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

16) Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining an unwanted behavior is called _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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extinction punishment negative reinforcement positive reinforcement Ref: Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior is called extinction. When a behavior is not reinforced, it tends to gradually be extinguished.

17) All of the following are TRUE about both positive and negative reinforcement EXCEPT:

Both positive and negative reinforcement result in learning. Both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen a response. Both positive and negative reinforcement tend to weaken behavior and decrease it subsequent frequency. Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability of repetition. Ref: Positive and negative reinforcement result in learning, strengthening a response and increasing the probability of repetition, while punishment and extinction weaken behavior and tend to decrease its subsequent frequency.

18) A slot machine is an example of _____ reinforcement.

negative intermittent continuous fixed-ratio

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Ref: In an intermittent schedule, not every instance of the desirable behavior is reinforced, but reinforcement is given often enough to make the behavior worth repeating. Evidence indicates that the intermittent, or varied, form of reinforcement tends to promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous form.

19) For a salesperson who is paid commission, reinforcement occurs on a _____ schedule. variable-ratio variable-interval fixed-interval fixed-ratio Ref: When the reward varies relative to the behavior of the individual, he or she is reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule. Salespeople on commission are examples of individuals on such a reinforcement schedule, as the reward is variable in relation to the number of successful calls the salesperson makes.

20) The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting is referred to as _____. classical conditioning self-management reengineering behavior modification Ref: Behavior modification applies reinforcement concepts to individuals in organizations and has become more popularly called OB Mod. It represents the application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

21) The four management functions include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

controlling planning staffing http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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organizing Ref: Fayol's functions of management have been condensed down to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

22) _____ studies behavior as it relates to concerns such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity, and performance. Psychology Kinetics Organizational behavior Ergonomics Ref: Organizational behavior is a field of study that applies knowledge about individuals, groups, and structure to make organizations work more effectively.

23) According to the text, the best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is_____. using common sense an observational approach a theoretical approach a systematic approach Ref: You can improve your predictive ability by replacing your intuitive opinions with a more systematic approach.

24) What behavioral science discipline has made the MOST significant contributions to understanding individual behavior? Sociology Social psychology Psychology Anthropology http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Ref: Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Psychology's contributions have been mainly at the individual or micro level of analysis, while social psychology, sociology, anthropology, and political science have contributed to our understanding of macro concepts such as group processes and organization.

25) _____ has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries. Anthropology Psychology Social psychology Political science Ref: Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Much of our understanding of organizational culture, organizational environments, and differences between national cultures is the result of the work of anthropologists or those using their methodologies.

26) _____ means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity. Globalization Workforce diversity Affirmative action Organizational culture Ref: workforce diversityaddresses differences among people within given countries.

27) The _____ assumption assumes that people who are different will want to assimilate. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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melting-pot workplace diversity amoeba homogenization Ref: The melting-pot assumption is being replaced by one that recognizes and values diversity. However, this is being replaced by a set of beliefs that recognize and value diversity.

28) Which of the following groups will NOT increase as a percentage of the workforce? Hispanic men and women black women white males Asian men and women Ref: By 2050, Hispanics will grow from 11% of the workforce to 24%. The percentage of the workforce that is black will increase from 12 to 14 percent and the percentage that is Asian will increase from 5 to 1 percent. White males, who once dominated the workforce, will become a minority.

29) A(n) _____is a situation in which an employee must define right and wrong conduct. problem ethical dilemma argument principle Ref: An ethical dilemma is a situation in which an employee must define right and wrong conduct. While what constitutes ethical behavior has never been clearly defined, in recent years, the line differentiating right from wrong has become even more blurred.

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30) Individual level independent variables include _____. technology organizational culture perception human resource policy Ref: An independent variable is the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable. Perception, individual decision making, learning, and motivation are independent variables that have been shown to affect employee behavior. 31) According to the Myers-Briggs type Indicator, people who are classified as _____ are conceptualizers. INTJs ESTJs ENTPs MBTIs Ref: The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments.

32) In the book Profiles of Genius, thirteen key executives were interviewed and tested and all were found to be _____ types. This result is particularly interesting because this type represents only about five percent of the population.

intuitive thinking sensing feeling sensing thinking intuitive feeling

Ref: The thirteen executives, who created highly successful companies (Apple Computer, FedEx, Honda Motors, Microsoft, and Sony) were all intuitive thinking types.

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33) Which dimension of the Big Five model refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others?

Extroversion Openness to experience Emotional stability Agreeableness Ref: Agreeableness refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting.

34) Individuals with a positive _____ like themselves, see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment.

narcissism propensity locus of control core self-evaluations Ref: Individuals with a positive core self-evaluations like themselves, see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Core self-evaluations are related to job satisfaction.

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35) Individuals who are high in the _____ dimension of personality manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more.

Rokeach Aesthetic Machiavellianism Narcissism

Ref: Individuals who are high in the Machiavellianism dimension of personality manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more. An individual who is high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

36) According to Rokeach, _____ values refer to desirable end-states of existence.

instrumental aesthetic terminal theoretical

Ref: Terminal values refer to desirable end states of existence. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. The instrumental values refer to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values.

37) The most recent entrants to the workforce are _____.

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Veterans Nexters Boomers Xers

Ref: This generation, the Nexters, is very money-oriented and desirous of the things that money can buy. They seek financial success. Like Xers, they enjoy teamwork, but they're also highly self-reliant.

38) Which of the following is NOT one of Hofstede's five dimensions of national culture?

power distance language proficiency quantity of life vs. quality of life long-term orientation Ref: Hofstede identified power distance, individualism versus collectivism, quantity of life versus quality of life, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation.

39) _____ is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.

Power distance Individualism Uncertainty avoidance Long-term orientation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Ref: Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations. In countries that score high on uncertainty avoidance, people have an increased level of anxiety, which manifests itself in greater nervousness, stress, and aggressiveness.

40) John Holland argues that job satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where _____.

personality and occupation are in agreement an individual is highly motivated salary is high employees have an education Ref: Holland's theory is based on the notion of fit between an individual's personality characteristics and his or her occupational environment. Each of his six personality types has a congruent occupational environment.

41) _____ is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

Interpretation Environmental analysis Perception Personality

Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

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42) Which one of the following is NOT a factor that influences perception?

Target Medium Perceiver Situation

The factors that shape and distort perception can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

43) Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we see, we engage in _____.

selective perception memorization mental desensitization periodic listening

Since we cannot observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception. This allows us to "speed-read" others.

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44) The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II is an example of _____.

personality profiling experience satisficing

The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II is an example of profiling. While most Americans look back in shame at the actions the U.S. government took against JapaneseAmericans, profiling continues in the U.S. and other countries.

45) Which is NOT one of the steps in the rational decision making model?

Defining the problem Identifying the decision criteria Rating alternatives Selecting the decision that satisfices

The model begins by defining the problem. Once a decision maker has defined the problem he or she needs to identify the decision criteria that will be important in solving the problem. The third step requires the decision maker to weight the previously identified criteria to give them the correct priority in the decision. The fourth step requires the decision maker to generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem. Then the decision maker must critically analyze and evaluate each one by rating each alternative on each criterion. The final step requires http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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computing the optimal decision.

46) Decision makers operate within the confines of _____ i.e., they construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.

optimal decision making intuitive decision making bounded rationality synopsis Individuals operate within the confines of bounded rationality. Individuals behave rationally within the limits of a simplified model.

47) _____ is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.

Escalation of commitment Optimizing decision making Satisficing decision making Reengineering

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Escalation of commitment refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong.

48) In spite of the fact that short-term stock price changes are essentially random, a large proportion of investors believe that they can predict the direction that prices will move. This is an example of _____.

availability bias randomness error confirmation bias representative error

This is an example of randomness error. In spite of the fact that short-term stock price changes are essentially random, a large proportion of investors believe that they can predict the direction that prices will move.

49) Which of the following is NOT an organizational constraint on decision-making?

Performance evaluation Reward system Personality Formal regulations

Managers shape their decisions to reflect the organization's performance evaluation and reward system, to comply with the organization's formal regulations, and to meet organizationally imposed time constraints. Previous organizational decisions also act as precedents to constrain current decision.

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50) Decisions made so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number are based on _____.

utilitarianism justice rights profits The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. This view tends to dominate business decision making.

51) Which of the following is NOT a key element in motivation?

Environment Intensity Direction Persistence

The three key elements of motivation are intensity, direction, and persistence.

52) _____ is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

Social http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Self-actualization Physiological Esteem

Self-actualization is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming in Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

53) Which of the following were considered higher-order needs by Maslow?

physiological, safety, and social needs safety, social, and esteem needs esteem and self-actualization needs social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

Social, esteem, and self-actualization were described as higher-order needs.

54) A Theory X manager would assume employees would _____.

like work seek responsibility need to be controlled exercise self direction

Under Theory X, managers assume employees inherently dislike work and will avoid it; must be coerced and controlled to achieve goals, will avoid responsibilities, and will display little ambition. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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55) Two-factor theory suggests that extrinsic factors such as _____ cause dissatisfaction.

advancement working conditions achievement recognition

Conditions surrounding the job include factors such as quality of supervision, pay, company policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security. There are hygiene factors.

56) Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer all of the following EXCEPT _____.

job situations with personal responsibility a high degree of risk overcoming obstacles feedback

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High achievers seek situations in which they can attain personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems, in which they can receive rapid feedback on their performance so they can determine easily whether they are improving or not, and in which they can set moderately challenging goals. They dislike gambling with high odds because they get no satisfaction from happenstance success.

57) According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be _____.

extremely difficult easy difficult but attainable similar to goals for other organizations

According to the goal-setting theory of motivation, goals should be difficult but attainable.

58) Manager's can increase an employee's _____ through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal.

equity expectancy self-efficacy reinforcement

Manager's can increase an employee's self-efficacy through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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59) _____ exists when an individual perceives that the ratio of their inputs to outcomes is dissimilar to the ration of relevant others.

Reinforcement Cognitive dissonance Equity tension Turnover

Equity tension exists when an individual perceives that the ratio of their inputs to outcomes is dissimilar to the ration of relevant others.

60) The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual is the ____ relationship.

Rewards-personal goals Performance-reward Effort-performance Rewards-effort

The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual's personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual.

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61) The _____ says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about.

management by objectives plan participative decision making model job characteristics model performance feedback system

The job characteristics model says that internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn that they personally have performed well on a task that they care about.

62) _____ (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another.

Job enlargement Employee involvement Job rotation Job enrichment

Job rotation (or cross-training) is the periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another.

63) _____ may be implemented by combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels.

Job enlargement Employee involvement http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Job rotation Job enrichment

Job enrichment may be implemented by combining tasks, forming natural work units, establishing client relationships, expanding jobs vertically, and opening feedback channels.

64) Susan works from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day, while other employees in her office work from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. It appears that Susan's employer offers a _____ option.

department modeling job sharing telecommuting flextime

65) Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or on the telephone are natural candidates for _____.

department modeling job sharing telecommuting flextime

Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or on the telephone are natural candidates for telecommuting.

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66) _____ is a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization's success.

MBO Employee involvement Reengineering OB Mod

Employee involvement is a participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization's success.

67) A _____ is a group of employees and supervisors who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions.

department team cooperative group evaluation team quality circle

A quality circle is a group of employees and supervisors who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems and recommend solutions. Management retains control over the final decision regarding implementation of recommended solutions.

68) Piece-rate plans, merit based pay, bonuses, profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee stock ownership plans are all forms of _____ programs.

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ESOP gainsharing variable-pay Scanlon Piece-rate plans, merit based pay, bonuses, profit sharing, gainsharing, and employee stock ownership plans are all forms of variable-pay programs.

69) _____ is an incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.

ESOP Gainsharing Variable pay Scanlon plan

In gainsharing, employees receive either a predetermined or a variable percentage of an organization's profits.

70) The three most popular types of _____ are modular plans, core-plus options, and flexible spending accounts.

stock options gainsharing plans variable pay programs flexible benefits http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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The three most popular types of flexible benefit plans are modular plans, core-plus options, and flexible spending accounts.

71) _____ is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience.

Mood Affect Emotion Personality

Affect is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience. It is an umbrella concept that encompasses both emotions and moods.

72) Six universal _____ are anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise.

cognitions lobes emotions moods

Six universal emotions are anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise, with most other emotions subsumed under one of these six categories.

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73) _____ is a field of study that examines the extent to which emotions, whether positive or negative, serve a purpose.

Evolutionary psychology Emotional anthropology Emotional intelligence None of the above

Evolutionary psychology is a field of study that examines the extent to which emotions, whether positive or negative, serve a purpose.

74) _____ is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise on the low end.

Positive affect Negative affect Positivity Illusory correlation

Negative affect is a mood dimension consisting of nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end, and relaxation, tranquility, and poise on the low end.

75) _____ occurs when people associate two events, when there is no real connection.

Accelerated formation http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Groupthink Illusory correlation Groupshift

Illusory correlation occurs when people associate two events, when there is no real connection. For example, people tend to think that nice weather improves their mood.

76) _____ refers to an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

Emotional labor Emotional Intelligence Mission Motivation Emotional labor refers to an employee's expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.

77) Jane is concerned that her company is selling products of very poor quality. However, when meeting with customers, Jane feels obligated to be positive and express confidence about the quality of the product. Jane is likely experiencing _____.

displayed emotions emotional dissonance deep acting self-awareness

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Jane is likely experiencing emotional dissonance. Left unresolved, emotional dissonance can result in emotional exhaustion and burnout.

78) People who exhibit _____ know their own emotions and are good at reading others' emotions may be more effective in their jobs

emotional labor emotional dissonance emotional intelligence cognitive dissonance

Emotional intelligence is one's ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information.

79) _____, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is awareness of one's feelings.

Self-management Self-awareness Social skill Empathy

Self-awareness, one of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, is awareness of one's feelings.

80) People in good moods use _____, or rules of thumb, to make decisions. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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self-management theories heuristics empathy

People in good moods use heuristics, or rules of thumb, to make decisions.

81) The _____ stage in group development which is characterized by uncertainty.

norming storming forming performing In the forming stage, groups are testing the waters and there is considerable uncertainty.

82) The _____ model is effective at describing decision-making within temporary groups, particularly those with deadlines.

punctuated-equilibrium authority structure formal regulation performance evaluation

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The punctuated-equilibrium model is effective at describing decision-making within temporary groups, particularly those with deadlines.

83) ____ groups are defined by the organization's structure.

Informal Formal Friendship Interest

Formal groups are those defined by the organization's structure. Informal groups provide an important service by satisfying their members' social needs.

84) _____ refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role.

Role perception Role identity Role expectations Role conflict

Role identity refers to the attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with a role.

85) _____ describe how others believe you should act in a given situation.

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Norms Stereotypes Role expectations Role perceptions Role expectations describe how others believe you should act in a given situation.

86) Which is NOT a common class of norms appearing in most work groups?

Performance norms Appearance Termination Arrangement Common classes of group norms are performance norms, appearance norms, social arrangement norms, and allocation of resources norms.

87) What is the relationship between size and group performance?

The larger the group, the greater the individual productivity. Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance. Total productivity tends to decline in large groups. Group size is not a determinant of individual productivity.

The individual productivity of each group member declines as the group size increases.

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88) Which of the following is a strategy to increase group cohesiveness?

Make the group smaller. Encourage agreement with group goals. Decrease the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group. Both A and B are correct.

Group cohesiveness can be increased by the following: make the group smaller, encourage agreement with group goals, increase the time members spend together, increase the status of the group and the perceived difficulty of attaining membership in the group, stimulate competition with other groups, give rewards to the group rather than to individual members, and physically isolate the group.

89) Which is NOT a weakness of group decision-making?

Group decisions are time-consuming. Groups offer increased diversity of views. Group members suffer from ambiguous responsibilities. Groups can be dominated by one or a few members.

Weaknesses of group decision making include the fact that they are time consuming, there are conformity pressures in groups, the discussion can be dominated by one or a few members, and there is ambiguous responsibility.

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90) Which of the following best describes brainstorming?

A strategy used to build group cohesiveness. A technique that tends to restrict independent thinking. A process for generating ideas. A strategy when group members cannot agree on a solution. Brainstorming utilizes an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.

91) Which of the following does NOT explain the current popularity of teams?

Teams outperform individuals when the tasks require multiple skills. Teams enable organizations to better utilize employee talents. Teams are a means to increase employee motivation. Teams outperform individuals in all situations. Teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. Teams also better utilize employee talents and are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groups.

92) _____ is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

Synergy http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Enthusiasm Energy Initiative

A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. Synergy occurs when the team exhibits a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs

93) _____ teams go farther than problem-solving teams in getting employees involved in work-related decisions and processes.

Problem identification Self-managed Virtual Cross-functional

Self-managed teams could not only solve problems but implement solutions and take full responsibility for outcomes.

94) Which is NOT one of the three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from faceto-face teams?

The absence of nonverbal and paraverbal cues Limited social contact Increased social rapport The ability to overcome time and space constraints

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In face-to-face conversation, people use paraverbal and nonverbal cues. These help clarify communication by providing increased meaning, but aren't available in online interactions. Virtual teams often suffer from less social rapport and less direct interaction among members. Virtual team members report less satisfaction with the group interaction process as a result.

95) Which of the following is NOT one of the key factors in creating effective teams?

context composition cross-functional demographics

The key components of effective teams include context, composition, work design, and process variables.

96) Which of the following skills is required for an effective team?

Problem-solving skills Technical expertise Interpersonal skills All of the above

To perform effectively, teams need people with technical, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills.

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97) Which of the following statements is true concerning the climate of trust?

Interpersonal trust among team members inhibits cooperation. Interpersonal trust among team members reduces the need to monitor each others behavior. Interpersonal trust at team members bonds members at the belief that others will take advice of them if given the opportunity. Interpersonal trust at team members increases members' aversion to risk.

Interpersonal trust among team members facilitates cooperation, reduces the need to monitor each others' behavior, and bonds members around the belief that others on the team won't take advantage of them.

98) Teams are most effective when staffed with people who are _____.

extraverted homogeneous inflexible intraverted

Teams are most effective when staffed with people who are extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open.

99) _____ considers the age, sex, race, educational level, and length of service of team members.

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Diversity training Cognitive dissonance Cohorts Organizational demographics

Organizational demography considers the age, sex, race, educational level, and length of service of team members.

100)

_____ illustrates a process loss as a result of using teams.

Synergy Social loafing Diversity Demographics Social loafing illustrates a process loss as a result of using teams.

101)

The _____ initiates a message by encoding a thought.

channel sender receiver medium

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The message is encoded by the sender and passed by way of some medium to the receiver who retranslates the message. The result is transference of meaning from one person to another.

102)

The chief means of conveying messages is _____ communication.

nonverbal interpersonal oral written

The chief means of conveying messages is oral communication

103) The _____ communication network is best illustrated by an unstructured committee.

wheel all-channel interpersonal circle

The all-channel network is most often characterized in practice by self-managed teams, in which all group members are free to contribute and no one person takes on a leadership role.

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104) Grapevine studies have shown that ____ percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine.

50 75 60

A survey found that 75 percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors on the grapevine.

105)

Electronic communication includes all of the following EXCEPT:

internet logs. telephone calls. videoconferencing. e-mail. Electronic communication includes electronic mail, text messaging, networking software, internet logs, andvideoconferencing.

106) _____ refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.

Feedback http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Filtering Perception Channel richness Face-to-face conversation scores highest in terms of channel richness because it provides for the maximum amount of information to be transmitted during a communication episode.

107) Jake tells his boss only what he believes the boss wants to hear. He is engaging in _____.

filtering selective perception jargon feedback

Filtering refers to a sender's purposely manipulating information so it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. For example, when a manager tells his boss what he feels his boss wants to hear, he is filtering information.

108)

Which of the following is NOT a barrier to effective communication?

Filtering Channel richness Selective perception http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Language

Barriers to effective communication include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions,and language.

109) Tannen's research indicates that men use talk to ___, while women use it to _____.

emphasize status; create connection build relationships; get promotions establish blame; emphasize status Create networks; emphasize separateness

The essence of Tannen's research is that men use talk to emphasize status, while women use it to create connection.

110)

In _____ cultures, the words themselves are the primary conveyors of meaning.

rich low-context symbolic semantic In low-context cultures, the words themselves are the primary conveyors of meaning. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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111)

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

All leaders are managers. All managers are not leaders. The formal rights associated with management provide assurance that managers can lead effectively. Non-sanctioned leadership is not as important as formal influence.

112) _____ theory states that people are born with certain characteristics that predispose them to being leaders.

Trait Path-goal LPC Contingency

Trait theories of leadership differentiate leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics.

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113) When organized around the Big Five, _____ is the most important trait of effective leaders.

conscientiousness emotional stability courage extraversion

When organized around the Big Five, extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders.

114) _____ is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.

conscientiousness emotional stability courage consideration Considerstion is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees' ideas, and regard for their feelings.

115) Fiedler's contingency model assumes that an individual's leadership style is _____.

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changeable trained situational fixed Fiedler assumes that an individual's leadership style is fixed.

116) According to Fiedler's contingency theory, if there is NOT a match of leadership style to the group situation, what should be done?

Replace the manager. Change the situation to fit the leader. Both A and B. None of the above. First, you can change the leader to fit the situation. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. That could be done by restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control factors such as salary increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions.

117) Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it _____.

identifies specific leadership styles focuses on the followers makes leadership contingent on the situation uses the leadership dimensions of task and relationship behaviors http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers.

118) According to LMX theory, which of the following is NOT true of those individual's who fall into the out-group?

They get less of the leader's time. They have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interaction. They are trusted. They get fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls.

"Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory” The out-group members get less of the leader's time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interactions.

119) A _____ leadership style, identified by House in path-goal theory, leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. directive supportive participative achievement-oriented Path-Goal Theory” The directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out.

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120)

The leader-participation model was developed by _____.

Robert House Fred Fiedler George Graen Vroom and Yetton "Decision Theory: Vroom and Yelton's Leader-Participation Model” Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a leader-participation model.

121) Leaders demonstrate _____ when they use language to influence followers' perceptions of the world, the meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future.

mentoring influence framing vision

Inspirational Approaches to Leadership” Leaders demonstrate framing when they use language to influence followers' perceptions of the world, the meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future.

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122)

Which of the following is NOT true of charismatic leaders?

They have a vision. They have behavior that is unconventional. They are willing to take high personal risk. They are focused on their personal needs.

Charismatic Leadership” Four characteristics of the charismatic leader have been identified. They have a vision, are willing to take risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive follower needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary

123)

A charismatic leader's _____ is key to follower acceptance.

energy vision credentials history with the organization

Charismatic Leadership” A charismatic leader's vision is key to follower acceptance. A vision is a long-term goal or strategy that is based on the attainment of values.

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124) A _____ leader has five essential qualities: (1) individual capability; (2) team skills; (3) managerial competence; (4) the ability to stimulate others to high performance; and (5) a blend of personal humility and professional will.

level-5 transactional charismatic transformational

Charismatic Leadership” A level-5 leader has five essential qualities: (1) individual capability; (2) team skills; (3) managerial competence; (4) the ability to stimulate others to high performance; and (5) a blend of personal humility and professional will.

125) The overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with _____.

lower turnover rates higher productivity higher employee satisfaction all of the above Transformational Leadership” The overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than transactional leadership with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher employee satisfaction.

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126) _____ leaders know who they are, know that they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.

Transformational Transactional Charismatic Authentic

"What is Authentic Leadership?” Authentic leaders know who they are, know that they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly.

127)

Which of the following is NOT a dimension of trust?

Integrity Competence Loyalty Distance

Trust” The key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust are integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, andopenness.

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128) A ______ is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee.

mentor facilitator leader coach "Mentoring” A mentor is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee. The mentoring role includes coaching, counseling, and sponsorship.

129)

Which of the following is true concerning online leadership?

The digital age can never turn non-leaders into leaders. Effective on-line leaders need to develop the skill of deciphering the emotional components of messages. Managers whose face-to-face leadership skills are less than satisfactory will not shine online. The on-line leader has received considerable attention from organizational behavior researchers.

Online Leadership” Good interpersonal skills may include the abilities to communicate warmth, emotion, trust, and leadership through written words on a computer screen and to read emotions in others' messages. Some managers, whose face-to-face leadership skills are less than satisfactory, may shine online.

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130)

Which of the following is NOT a substitute for leadership?

Explicit formalized goals Rigid rules and procedures Cohesive work groups Professional orientation of employees Substitutes and Neutralizers to Leadership” Organizational characteristics like explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, and cohesive work groups can replace formal leadership.

131) ____ research emphasizes style; whereas research on ____ focuses on tactics for gaining compliance.

Power; persuasion Communication; politics Leadership; power Politics; leadership

Contrasting Leadership and Power” Leadership research, for the most part, emphasizes style. In contrast, the research on power tends to encompass a broader area and focus on tactics for gaining compliance.

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132) A has ____ power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job.

Referent Reward Legitimate Coercive

Bases of Power” At the organizational level, A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job. Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B.

133) Avoidance of ______ is why most organizations develop multiple suppliers rather than give their business to only one.

knowledge dependency power independence

"Dependency - Key to Power” Dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of supply.

134)

_____ is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Consultation Rational persuasion Pressure Exchange "Power Tactics” Rational persuasion is the only power tactic that is effective across organizational levels.

135) Most studies confirm that the concept of _____ is central to understanding sexual harassment.

Power Sex Politics Locus of control

"Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace” Most studies confirm that the concept of power is central to understanding sexual harassment. This seems to be true whether the harassment comes from a supervisor, a co-worker, or even an employee.

136) ______ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.

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Politicking Forming coalitions Playing hardball Facilitating teamwork "Politics: Power in Action” Politicking occurs when people use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.

137)

Which of the following is NOT an individual factor related to political behavior?

Personality traits Perceived alternatives Level of trust Expectations of success

Factors Contributing to Political Behavior” An individual's personality as well as investment in the organization, perceived alternatives, and expectations of success will influence the degree to which he or she will pursue illegitimate means of political action.

138) _____ is the process by which individuals attempt to control the impressions others form of them.

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Impression management Misdirection Defense behavior Perception management

"Impression Management” The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them is calledimpression management.

139) _____ are more likely to engage in impression management, molding their image to fit the situation.

Individuals with an external locus of control High self-monitors Senior level managers Employees with high power distance Impression Management” High self-monitors are more likely to engage in impression management, molding their image to fit the situation.

140) Each of the following is a question your text suggests to analyze ethical questions except:

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Is the action consistent with the organization's goal? Is the action legal? Does the action violate rights of other parties? Does the action conform to standards of equity and justice?

The Ethics of Behaving Politically” The decision tree asks three questions. The first question to answer addresses self-interest versus organizational goals. The second question concerns the rights of other parties. The final question relates to whether or not the political activity conforms to standards of equity and justice.

141)

Conflict must be _____ by the parties to it.

controlled understood perceived created

"A Definition of Conflict” Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it. If no one is aware of a conflict, then it is generally agreed that no conflict exists.

142)

The traditional view of conflict argues that conflict _____.

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cannot be avoided indicates a malfunctioning within the group is good for a group improves productivity "Transitions in Conflict Thought” The traditional view of conflict has argued that conflict must be avoided - that it indicates a malfunctioning within the group.

143) The _____ view of conflict argues that some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

human relations interactionist traditional functional "Transitions in Conflict Thought” The interactionist view of conflict encourages group leaders to maintain an ongoing minimum level of conflict - enough to keep the group viable, self-critical, and creative.

144)

_______ conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.

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Relationship Process "Transitions in Conflict Thought” Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. The friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increases personality clashes and decreases mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks.

145) During the _____ stage of the conflict process, conditions are present that create opportunities for conflict to arise.

potential opposition or incompatibility cognition and personalization vision intentions

"The Conflict Process” The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. This is the stage known as potential opposition or incompatibility.

146)

Assertiveness is _____.

the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his/her own concerns the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party's concerns the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy everyone's concerns http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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the degree to which one party is cooperative

"Stage III: Intentions” Assertiveness is the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns.

147)

Labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies _____ bargaining.

integrative cost-effective distributive third-party "Bargaining Strategies” The most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is in labor-management negotiations over wages. Labor's representatives come to the bargaining table determined to get as much money as possible out of management. Since every cent more that labor negotiates increases management's costs, each party bargains aggressively and treats the other as an opponent who must be defeated.

148) _____ bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future.

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Third-party "Bargaining Strategies” Integrative bargaining builds long-term relationships and facilitates working together in the future.

149) During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands?

Preparation and planning Definition of ground rules Clarification and justification Bargaining and problem-solving

"The Negotiation Process” Once you've done your planning and developed a strategy, you're ready to begin defining the ground rules and procedures with the other party over the negotiation itself. During this definition of ground rules, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.

150)

Which of the following is correct about cultural differences in negotiation?

Japanese negotiators communicate directly and use the word "no" often. In negotiations, Brazilians are likely to use physical contact. North America persuade by appealing to emotions. Arabs rely on facts and appeal to logic. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Global Implications” While Japanese and North American negotiators were unlikely to exhibit any physical contact other than handshaking, Brazilians touched each other almost five times every half hour.

151)

Work specialization is also referred to as _____.

span of control division of labor unity-of-command job grouping

"Work Specialization” Work specialization is also referred to as division of labor.

152) At an Alcoa aluminum tubing plant in upstate New York, production is organized into five departments: casting; press; tubing; finishing and inspecting, packing, and shipping. This is an example of _____ departmentalization.

product functions geography process

"Departmentalization” This is an example of process departmentalization because each department specializes in one specific phase in the production of aluminum tubing. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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153) The ____ is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization.

matrix organization bureaucracy simple structure team structure

"The Bureaucracy” The bureaucracy is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command.

154)

The ____ violates the unity-of-command concept.

simple structure bureaucracy matrix structure virtual organization "The Matrix Structure” The most obvious structural characteristic of the matrix structure is that it breaks the unity-ofcommand concept. Therefore, the matrix has a dual chain of command.

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155)

The ____ is also called the network or modular organization.

virtual organization team structure matrix bureaucracy

"The Virtual Organization” The virtual organization is also called the network or modular organization.

156)

The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____.

information technology vertical boundaries horizontal boundaries external boundaries

"The Boundaryless Organization” Because it relies so heavily on information technology, some have turned to calling this structure the T-form (or technology-based) organization.

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157) The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization.

mechanistic model organic model technology model boundaryless organization "Why Do Structures Differ?” The mechanistic model has extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network (mostly downward communication), and little participation by low-level members in decision making.

158)

Which of the following is NOT a determinant of an organization's structure?

Strategy Organization size Industry Technology "Why Do Structures Differ?” Determinants of an organization's structure include strategy, organization size, technology, and environment.

159)

Changes in corporate strategy precede and lead to _____. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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changes in the environment better communication increased productivity changes in an organization's structure

"Strategy” Structure should follow strategy. If management makes a significant change in its organization's strategy, the structure will need to be modified to accommodate and support this change.

160) Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is MOST true?

There is fairly strong evidence linking decentralization and job satisfaction. There is no evidence that supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance. The evidence generally indicates that work specialization contributes to higher productivity and reduced job satisfaction. No one wants work that makes minimal intellectual demands and is routine. "Organizational Designs and Employee Behavior” There is no evidence that supports a relationship between span of control and employee performance.

161)

Institutionalization is the process through which _____.

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individuals become a part of an organization an organization takes on a life of its own an individual is offered a life-time position an organization employs a critical mass of people

"Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture” Institutionalization is when the organization takes on a life of its own, apart from its founders or any of its members.

162)

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of organizational culture?

Attention to detail Innovation Formalization Team orientation

"What is Organizational Culture?” The characteristics that capture the essence of an organization's culture are innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability.

163)

A strong culture builds all of the following EXCEPT ____.

cohesiveness http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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loyalty quality organizational commitment

"Culture's Functions” A strong culture demonstrates high agreement among members about what the organization stands for. Such unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment. These qualities, in turn, lessen employees' propensity to leave the organization.

164)

Culture is most likely to be a liability when _____.

it increases consistency of behavior the environment is dynamic management is incompetent it reduces ambiguity

"Culture as a Liability” Culture is most likely to be a liability when the shared values are not in agreement with those that will further the organization's effectiveness. This is most likely to occur when an organization's environment is dynamic.

165)

Which of the following is NOT a way that culture is created?

Founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. Founders indoctrinate and socialize employees to their way of thinking and feeling. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Founders poll early employees to determine the appropriate cultural values. The founders' own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs.

"How a Culture Begins” The process of culture-creation occurs in three ways. First, founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. Second, they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feeling. And, finally, the founders' own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs.

166)

All of the following serve to sustain a culture EXCEPT _____.

selection formalization socialization top management

"Keeping a Culture Alive” The selection process, performance evaluation criteria, training and career development activities, andpromotion procedures ensure that those hired fit in with the culture.

167)

_____ is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture.

Training Mentoring http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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Socialization Communicating "Keeping a Culture Alive” Socialization is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture.

168) Which of the following is NOT a common form by which culture is transmitted to employees?

Stories Selection Rituals Language "How Employees Learn Culture” The most potent forms in which culture is transmitted to employees are stories, rituals, material symbols, and language.

169) Which of the following is NOT identified that managers can create a more ethical culture?

Visibly reward ethical acts. Set aggressive performance goals. Communicate ethical expectations. Provide protective mechanisms. http://groups.google.com/group/vuzs  vuZs.net



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"Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture” Companies desiring to shape ethical cultures provide visible role models, communicate ethical expectations, provide ethical training, visibly reward ethical acts, and provide protective mechanisms so that employees can discuss ethical dilemmas without fear of reprimand.

170)

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a spiritual organization?

Focus on individual development Employee empowerment Censorship of employee expression Trust and openness "Characteristics of a Spiritual Organization” The five cultural characteristics that tend to be evident in spiritual organizations are a strong sense of purpose, focus on individual development, trust and openness, employee empowerment, and toleration of employee expression.

171) The objective of effective _____ is to match individual characteristics such as ability and experience, with the requirements of the job.

job analysis selection recruitment performance appraisal

Затем поднял коробку, поставил ее на стол и вытряхнул содержимое. Аккуратно, предмет за предметом, перетряхнул одежду. Затем взял ботинки и постучал каблуками по столу, точно вытряхивая камешек. Просмотрев все еще раз, он отступил на шаг и нахмурился.

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